Saturday, August 31, 2019
1. (5 pts) Describe the metabolic process providing your energy while you were walking (at an easy pace) before the bee stung you. Include which molecules are being consumed. The metabolic process providing my energy while I was walking at an easy pace is aerobic metabolism. During aerobic metabolism, mitochondria absorb from the surrounding cytoplasm these molecules: ADP, phosphate ions, O2, and organic substances like pyruvate. These molecules go through the citric acid cycle. The electron transport chain is also involved to create ATP. For each molecule of pyruvate that goes into the citric acid cycle, the cell gains 17 ATP molecules. Glycogen reserves can also be used and converted to glucose. Glycolysis breaks down glucose molecules to create more pyruvate. However, if not enough glycogen is available, the cell can also use amino acids and lipids to do this. This is a very efficient process but also only contributes a fraction of the ATP during aerobic metabolism. At moderate levels of activity, most of the energy during aerobic metabolism comes from work done by the mitochondria. The muscles involved during this process need all of the energy produc ed as ATP, and there is no extra left over in this particular metabolic process if muscle activity increases (Ã¢â¬Å"Muscle TissueÃ¢â¬ P. 306-7). 2. (8 pts) Trace the sound of the bee from your outer ear to perception. (Include all focusing, conduction, transduction, transmission and perception processes and structures). Sound vibrations from the buzzing bee vibrate the air molecules as pressure waves around my ear and enter the auricle which is cone-shaped in order to direct these sound waves into the ear via the external acoustic meatus. The sound waves reach the tympanic membrane through the external acoustic meatus and cause it to vibrate. When the tympanic membrane moves, it causes the auditory ossicles to move. The auditory ossicles are made up of the malleus, incus, and stapes. These ossicles are important because they amplify the sound. The stapes then transfers this movement to the oval window and the pressure waves move through the perilymph of the scala vestibuli. These waves then disturb the basilar membrane as they move toward the round windowÃ of the scala tympani. This causes vibrations of hair cells against the tectorial membrane. The information about where the sound originated and about how strong the pressure waves are is interpreted by the central nervous system over the cochlea r branch of cranial nerve VIII (Ã¢â¬Å"The Special SensesÃ¢â¬ P. 584-5). 3. (4 pts) Turn your head to the right. (Create a table that describes which muscles move which bones across which joints under the control of which nerves). Action:Muscle:Origin:Insertion:Nerve: Bends head towards shoulder and turns face to opposite sideSternocleidomastoidClavicular head attaches to sternal end of clavicle; sternal head attaches to manubrium. Mastoid region of skull and lateral portion of superior nuchal lineAccessory Nerve XI; Cervical Spinal Nerves (C2-C3) Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that side, Splenius (Splenius capitis, splenius cervicis)Spinous processes and ligaments connecting inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae, Mastoid process, occipital bone of skull, and superior cervical vertebrae, Cervical Spinal Nerves Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that sideLongissimus capitis Transverse process of inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae, Mastoid process of temporal boneCervical and thoracic spinal nerves Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that sideLongissimus cervicis, Transverse process of superior thoracic vertebrae. Transverse processes of middle and superior cervical vertebrae. Cervical and thoracic spinal nerves. Extends vertebral column and rotates toward opposite side. Semispinalis cervicis. Transverse processes of T1-T5 or T6 Spinous processes of C2-C5Cervical spinal nerves Rotates head to that sideLongus capitis. Transverse processes of cervical vertebraeBase of the occipital boneCervical spinal nerves. Flexes or rotates neckLongus colliAnterior surfaces of cervical and superior thoracic vertebraeTransverse processes of superior cervical vertebraeCervical spinal nerves (Ã¢â¬Å"The Muscular SystemÃ¢â¬ P. 339-341) 4. (6 pts) Move your eyes and look at the bee. (Create a table that describesÃ which nerves control which muscles to cause the needed eye movements). Action:Muscle:Origin:Insertion:Nerve: Eye looks down. Inferior RectusSphenoid around optic canal. Inferior, medial surface of eyeball. Oculomotor Nerve III Eye looks laterally. Lateral Rectus. Sphenoid around optic canalLateral surface of eyeball. Abducens Nerve VI Eye rolls, looks down and laterally. Superior ObliqueSphenoid around optic canal. Superior, lateral surface of eyeball. Trochlear Nerve IV (Ã¢â¬Å"The Muscular SystemÃ¢â¬ P. 335) 5. (8 pts) Trace the image of the bee to perception. (Include all focusing, transduction, transmission and perception processes and structures). After a retinal molecule absorbs light, the normally 11-cis form of the bound retinal molecule straightens to become the 11-trans from. This change activated the opsin molecule. Opsin activates transducin which is a G protein. This G protein then activates phosphodiesterase. Phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that breaks down cyclic-GMP. The break-down of cyclic-GMP removes them from the gated sodium channels and makes the gated sodium channels inactive. Because of this, sodium ion entry into the cytoplasm decreases. This sodium ion reduction then reduces the dark current. Active transport continues to remove sodium ions from the cytoplasm even though the gated sodium channels are closed. This causes the transmembrane potential to drop down to -70 mV and hyperpolarize. This hyperpolarization decreases neurotransmitter release. The adjacent cell is then aware that the photoreceptor has absorbed a photon. A specific ganglion cell keeps track of a specific portion of the visual field. Rods are also called M cells and give the brain information about a general location of received photons and light rather than very specific information. Cones are also called P cells and can be much more specific than rods. The P cells are smaller and more numerous than M cells. This helps them be better at giving information about edges, fine detail and color. The activation of a P cell gives information about a very specific location. The P cells give high resolution information. Axons from the ganglion cells converge on the optic disc, penetrate the eye, and continue toward the diencephalon on the optic nerve. II. From there the information is split in half and travels to the back of the brain and to the occipital lobe. Together, the diencephalon and the brain stem process the information and control eye reflexes and pupil dilation and/or constriction in order to see clearer and focus in on an object. Depth perception is a phenomenon that takes place when the visual cortex of my occipital lobes reviews the slightly different information obtained by each eyeball. The superior colliculi of the midbrain make motor commands that control unconscious eye, head, and/or neck actions that respond to visual stimuli. My eyes in the bright summer light looking at a bee that is so close (on my right shoulder) are likely to constrict so as to limit the photon stimulation on my retina and so as to focus on just the tiny bee (Ã¢â¬Å"The Special SensesÃ¢â¬ P. 569-74). 6. (11 pts) Move your left hand to swat the bee. (Create a table that describes which muscles move which bones across which joints under the control of which nerves). Limit your discussion to the movement at the shoulder and elbow only (do not include any un-needed muscles nor discuss the movement at any other joints). Action:Muscle:Origin:Insertion:Nerve: Move Left Arm Toward Right Side Flexion and medial rotation at shoulderDeltoid (anterior part)Clavicle and scapula (acromion and adjacent scapular spine)Deltoid tuberosity of humerus. Axillary nerve (C5-C6) Medial rotation at shoulder. SubscapularisSubscapular fossa of scapula. Lesser tubercle of humerusSubscapular nerves (C5-C6) Adduction and medial rotation at shoulder. Teres MajorInferior angle of scapula. Passes medially to reach the medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus. Lower subscapular nerve (C5-C6) Adduction and flexion at the shoulder. Coracobrachialis. Coracoid process. Medial margin of shaft of humerusMusculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7 Flexion, Adduction, and medial rotation at shoulder. Pectoralis Major. Cartilages of ribs 2-6, body of sternum, and inferior, medial portion of clavicle. Crest of greater tubercle and lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerusPectoral nerves (C5-T1) Adduction and medial rotation at shoulderLatissimus DorsiSpinous processes of inferior thoracic and allÃ lumbar vertebrae, ribs 8-12, and thoracolumbar fasciaFloor of intertubercular groove of humerus. Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8) Adduction at the shoulderTriceps brachii (long head)Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Olecranon of ulna. Radial nerve (C6-C8) Bend left forearm towards right shoulder Flexion at elbow and shoulderBiceps brachiiShort head from the coracoid process; long head from the supraglenoid tubercle; both on the scapulaTuberosity of radiusMusculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6) Flexion at elbow Brachialis Anterior, distal surface of humerus Tuberosity of ulna Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6) and radial nerve (C7-C8) Flexion at elbow. Brachioradialis Ridge superior to the lateral epicondyle of humerusLateral aspect of styloid process of radius. Radial nerve (C5-C6) (Ã¢â¬Å"The Muscular SystemÃ¢â¬ P. 353-355) 7. (2 pts) What molecule provided the energy for the movement of your arm? ATP (adenosine triphosphate) provided the energy for the movement of my arm. 8. Feel the pain of the stinger in your skin. a. (3 pts) What layers of the skin are penetrated and what tissue types make them up? The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin, and it is made of stratified squamous epithelium. The dermis is deep to the epidermis and it is made of dense irregular connective tissue. The hypodermis is deep to the dermis and is made of adipose tissue (Ã¢â¬Å"The Tissue Level of OrganizationÃ¢â¬ P. 114-126). b. (5 pts) Trace the pain sensation from the receptors to perception. There are pain receptors on the shoulder that communicate to the central nervous system. Because a bee sting is a stinging, injection-like pain, it would be considered Ã¢â¬Å"fast pain.Ã¢â¬ Fast pain sensations are carried by myelinated Type A fibers. The myelination helps the information to travel faster down the neuron. The bee sting stimulates the dendrites ofÃ nociceptors in the shoulder and causes depolarization. The initial segment of the axon must reach threshold in order to release an action potential. Once an action potential is released, it travels by neurons to the central nervous system. When the action potential reaches the central nervous system, glutamate and/or substance P are released as neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters make it easier for neurons to travel along pain pathways. This is known as pain perception (Ã¢â¬Å"Neural Integration I: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous SystemÃ¢â¬ P. 498). 9. (8 pts) Explain your autonomic response to this event. State which division is taking control and describe exactly how that division will effect breathing rate, heart rate, and pupil size. (Note: donÃ¢â¬â¢t just describe the effect, but describe the control pathway that leads to that effect, including any chemical messengers involved.) The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is taking control. This division increases breathing rate, heart rate, and pupil size. The visceral motor nuclei in the hypothalamus activates autonomic nuclei in the brain stem and spinal cord. The brain stem and spinal cord in turn activate autonomic ganglia that then stimulate visceral effectors such as smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle, and adipocytes. Smooth muscle effectors affect blood vessels by constricting them and increasing blood pressure and speeding up blood flow in order to increase oxygen circulation. The smooth muscle also affects the constriction/dilation of the lungs. The sympathetic nervous system wants to dilate the lungs to increase breathing rates and oxygen intake. The glands that are stimulated cause the body to perspire. The cardiac muscle increases heart rate. Adipocytes can be used for energy because they are fatty acids (lipids) and can be used to make ATP during glycolysis very quickly (Ã¢â¬Å" Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-Order FunctionsÃ¢â¬ P. 518-523). 10. (6 pts) Describe the elements of the homeostatic control system that caused the sweating and the red skin. Include the control pathway involved. The control pathway of the sympathetic division that caused the sweating andÃ the red skin was the sympathetic chain ganglia. Preganglionic fibers carried motor commands that affect the head, neck, limbs, and thoracic cavity. The unmyelinated postganglionic fibers that control the body wall enter the gray ramus and return to the spinal nerve for further distribution. They then are able to innervate the sweat glands of the skin and the smooth muscles in blood vessels. This innervation causes the sweat glands to sweat and the blood vessels to constrict. Constricting the blood vessels is helpful because it will raise blood pressure and increase oxygen circulation (Ã¢â¬Å"Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-Order FunctionsÃ¢â¬ P. 521) 11. (1 pts) Describe the metabolic process providing your energy while you were running (as fast as you could) after the bee stung you. Include which molecule(s) is(are) being consumed. The metabolic process that was providing my energy while I was running as fast as I could was anaerobic metabolism. This metabolic process does not require oxygen and uses glycolysis to generate 2 ATP molecules but also to generate 2 pyruvate molecules. Each pyruvate molecule can be broken down by the mitochondria to generate 17 ATP molecules. This is a total of 34 ATP molecules. This is a lot of energy and is necessary when muscles are at peak activity levels (Ã¢â¬Å"Muscle TissueÃ¢â¬ P. 306-7). 12. (5 pts) Explain what the Ã¢â¬Å"Epi-PenÃ¢â¬ contains (what kind of chemical is that) and how that will help in this situation. What effect will that pen have on the breathing rate? The Ã¢â¬Å"Epi-PenÃ¢â¬ contains epinephrine which is a neurotransmitter. It will try to improve the situation of an allergic reaction by increasing breathing rate, increasing heart rate, raise dropping blood pressure, reduce inflammation, and reverse hives (Ã¢â¬Å"Drugs and Medications Ã¢â¬â Epipen imÃ¢â¬ ). Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Drugs and Medications Ã¢â¬â Epipen im.Ã¢â¬ WebMD. Last Revised: 2013. First published by WebMD, 2005. Web. Visited: 30 November 2013. Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., and Bartholomew, E. F. Ã¢â¬Å"The Musclar System.Ã¢â¬ Anatomy & Physiology. 9th Ed. Boston: Benjamin Cummings, 2012. Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., and Bartholomew, E. F. Ã¢â¬Å"Muscle Tissue.Ã¢â¬ Anatomy & Physiology. 9th Ed. Boston: Benjamin Cummings, 2012. Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., and Bartholomew, E. F. Ã¢â¬Å"Neural Integration I: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System.Ã¢â¬ Anatomy & Physiology. 9th Ed. Boston: Benjamin Cummings, 2012. Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., and Bartholomew, E. F. Ã¢â¬Å"Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-Order Functions.Ã¢â¬ Anatomy & Physiology. 9th Ed. Boston: Benjamin Cummings, 2012. Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., and Bartholomew, E. F. Ã¢â¬Å"The Special Senses.Ã¢â¬ Anatomy & Physiology. 9th Ed. Boston: Benjamin Cummings, 2012. Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., and Bartholomew, E. F. Ã¢â¬Å"The Tissue Level of Organization.Ã¢â¬ Anatomy & Physiology. 9th Ed. Boston: Benjamin Cummings, 2012.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Explain why failed in1980s. During 1968-1978, The tensed relations between 2 superpowersÃ¢â¬âUS and USSR relaxed. Both of them tried various means to bring about peace such as closer communication and co-operations, Armament limitation etc. However, detente failed at the end of 1970s and marked the beginning of 2nd stage of cold war. There were several reasons which led to the rise of detente and the end of detente. The First reason for the rise of detente was because both superpowers were anxious to reduce the severe financial burden on military expenses. Since both sides were trying to defeat one another during cold war, they attempted in weakening another one by producing nuclear weapons. According to statistics, The military expenses almost occupied 41% of the annual total expenses of US. USSR also suffered from severe military burden. It was a heavy burden for both of them, therefore, they were willing to slow down the armament race by producing less nuclear weapns. They adopted the non-commitment policy which helped to ease international tensions in1970s. The reduction of military costs helped the rise of detente. The second reason for the rise of detente was the fear towards a nuclear war. Since tensions between them would increase the chance of the outbreak of nuclear war. They dared not to bear the risk of devastating destruction of civilization of human beings by nuclear war. As a result, they began to adopt a relatively moderate attitude towards each other instead of being rigid. This help to reduce tensions between them. The third reason for the rise of detente was because the two superpowers had learnt lessons from Vietnam war as well as Korean War. They knew that war was not a way to contain either blocs. The US paid a hude price for defending the free world against communism. The heavy casualties and expenses drove the Americans to reconsider the intervention policy towards world matters since 1947. Since America was on the verge of social revolution as a result, it adopted a more conciliatory attitude towards the communist bloc in order to prevent a nuclear war. The forth reason for the rise of detente was that USSR wanted to use its resources to develop homes economy and to raise the living standard of its people. In addition detente benefited to USSR as it can increase the trade with the western countries so as to develop its own economy. This can also avoid the formation of alliance between china and America. The fifth reason for the rise of detente was the split between USSR and China since the mid 60s. At the very beginning China and USSR established a close relationship as they were both communist countries which work together to confront against US. However the criticism of Khrushchev towards the Great Leap Foorward and The criticism of Community Party of China towards the view of Khrushchev led to the split between USSR and China. After that, these two countries were hostile to one another. An armed conflict on the sino-Soviet border in1969 further damaged their relations. The split between china and USSR helped the rise of detente as US considered USSR as a less threatening foe towards its leading position in the world without the alley-china. This helped improve the relationship between the two superpowers. The sisxth reason for the rise of detente was China and USSR were both feared of being isolated, hence they would like to develop a better relation with US. The US promoted detente to keep them apart and a strategic balance of power among 3 powers was kept. Hence the tensions between the two superpowers was no longer as fierce as the 1st of cold war. The seventh reason for the rise of detente was that China broke its isolation by more contact with the west for trade and support in modernization. This help the rise of detente as Us had a new alley which made it felt that USSR was no longer as threatening as before. Unfortunately, detente failed in 1979. Firstly the failure of detente was because of the Soviet invasion in afghanistan in 1979. The soviet sent troops to Afghanistan in order to overthrow a pro-us government there and extend its influence to the Persian gulf for tremendous amount of oil which were supplied by the Persian gulf region. The US also needed to prevent USSR from controlling Afghanistan. This is the important turning point for detente as both of them started to compete for natural resources again and this created tension and conflicts among them. This crisis triggered off their conflicts again. For example, the US Congress refused to ratify the SALT II treaty. In addition, the Us stopped its wheat sales to the USSR, president Jimmy carter called on the international community to boycott the Olympic games held in Moscow in 1980. Secondly the failure of detente was because of soviet suppression of polish solidarity. The USSR asked the polish government to suppress the solidarity movement in Poland as it afraid that the movement would arouse the anti-soviet feelings among eastern European countries. The soviet suppression of solidarity caused the wide discontent of US and western countries as it had broken its promised of protection over human rights. The Soviet suppression of polish solidarity led to the end of detente as US responsed to the action of USSR by asking the congress for an increase in military budget in order to produced more armaments and setting up more inter-continental missiles in Europe for defence against USSR. This led to the end of detente as superpowers were no longer willing to take a moderate attitude towards each other. Their restart of armament race intensified cold war again. Thirdly, detente failed because The introduction of star wars by US. And nearly 2000 military satellites were launched in space in 1980s. The cold war intensified. To conclude, the reasons for the rise of detente were both superpowers were anxious to reduce the severe financial burden on military expenses, fear towards a nuclear war, the two superpowers had learnt lessons from Vietnam war as well as Korean War, USSR wanted to use its resources to develop homes economy and to raise the living standard of its people, the split between USSR and China since the mid 60s, China and USSR were both feared of being isolated, hence they would like to develop a better relation with US. And the failure of detente were because Soviet invasion in afghanistan in 1979, soviet suppression of polish solidarity, introduction of star wars by US.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Michio KakuÃ¢â¬â¢s Vision of the Future By Artemio Zavala Michio Kaku's speech offered an expansive view of future technologies. His predictions were carefully grounded within the laws of physics and turned out to be quite marvelous. He foresees technologies like Ã¢â¬Å"retinal displayÃ¢â¬ contact lenses that connect directly to the internet, driverless cars, the mixing of real and virtual reality, and software Ã¢â¬Å"robotic doctorsÃ¢â¬ that might replace most people's initial visit to the doctor.Kaku was also optimistic about progress in medicine, biotech and nanotechnology suggesting that we'll have medical Ã¢â¬Å"tricordersÃ¢â¬ like the ones on Star Trek, miniature nanobots coursing through our veins, and advanced gene therapy. Kaku also believes that computers, artificial intelligence and robots will advance rapidly, even though he foresees a possible slowdown in the rate of improvement as Moore's Law potentially hits a wall. One area where I think Kaku failed to disc uss was how all this will impact culture and the economy.Kaku seems glued to the idea that only technology will change; yet he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t talk about how this technology might negatively affect society. If there will be robots that will cook and software that will do the jobs of doctors, and might even become conscious one day, then it seems clear that technology like that would be able to do the jobs of millions of people who sit in offices or work in service industries. Maybe Kaku fails to see the possible impact that his fantastic ideas might have on society? Nevertheless, his ideas were simply astonishing and I truly found his speech to be quite intriguing.
The Cask Of Amontillado - Essay Example The design in which the author brings out his message in the Cask of Amontillado story would be that people should always be careful whenever they are talking bad about other people. The issue of trust is also quite common in this story (Poe, 23). The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s main point is primarily from Montresor who is the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s main character. Alternatively, the author shades light on how Montresor exacts his revenge throughout the story and his self-satisfied reaction to the outcomes of the tragedies (Poe, 28). As readers of the story, the readers might be tempted to judge Montresor as a cold-blooded murder and an unreasonable character since his presentation to us is his poor motivations. However, there is the other side of Montresor where he has good will pretense and has careful Fortunato manipulation, which generally indicates care upon the planned FortunatoÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The readers have also a classic PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s case as an unreliable narrator. Throughout the story, his guilt and irrational nature tends to stop him from presenting himself as a truthful narrator to the reader (Poe, 40). On a closer inspection of the story, it is quite evident that Montresor has a black sense of humor. This character amuses the horrified reader especially when he directs Furtunato into his trap. By doing this, Montresor informs the audience regarding his intentions thus before the start of the story of his happenstance with Fortunato. On the other hand, Poe employs both dramatic and verbal irony in conveying the darkness of the Cask of Amontillados story. Verbal irony in this case is used to illustrate how the speaker contrasts his literal meaning with the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s actual message. Alternatively, MontresorÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue use in the story demonstrates the use of verbal irony (Poe, 35). There is also the aspect of dramatic irony in which the author uses throughout the story. Dramatic irony is generally as a result of disconnection which mainly occurs
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Agents of socialization - Essay Example I have been taught to respect the authority of my father and to look after my mother and the rest of my family as well. I think that the basic ideas of right and wrong, and a belief in the importance of family came to me through the social agents of my parents and grandparents. School was not such an important influence for me, at least not until I went to college. I found that what I learn through reading is more important than some of the lessons at school, and I did not fully understand how to make the best of school until I was well over 20 years old. In recent years I am discovering that a lot of things can be learned from other students, and not just the teachers. Listening to other students talk in class is a way of understanding the pressures and pleasures of different kinds of people. Politics becomes more interesting when you can link it to real life people that you know yourself, and so I have to admit that my fellow students have been important agents of socialization for me, especially because I missed out on an American childhood, and cannot always imagine how and why people hold certain views. Of course teachers are important agents of socialization too. I respect my teachers and observe how they behave in a professional way and this is impo rtant for my future, since I hope one day to be in a position of some authority in a responsible job and dealing with other people. The media are a major agent of socialization in my life and I love to use the latest gadgets and keep up with what is happening in the world. When I was young I could not imagine the possibility of being in touch with people from all over the world but now I have friends in Iran, in Europe, the Middle East and all over America through the means of social media like facebook and twitter. I do not read newspapers very much, and I do not have much time for television, but my computer is always with me, and I read about everything on my laptop. This allows me to form my own
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
How did a major religious, intellectual, or political transformation effect feminist ideas and demands focus on one such transaction - Essay Example Some women like Cleopatra, Joan of Arc, Mary Tudor, Catherine, the great, Queen Victoria, Queen Elizabeth and some others have achieved a prominent place in the annals of history but their numbers are negligible on the wider context of the social order. Those were exceptional women in exceptional time who were able to rise above their gender. Though none of these exemplary women leaders were able to influence the socio-cultural role of women to any considerable extent but they were able to ignite some ambitions and desires within the women to question their traditional subservient role. The dictums of French revolution which legally denied women any rights as an individual became the foundation for the early feminist movement in Europe. After the French revolution in 1789, Declaration of Rights of Man and of the citizen (gmu) provoked women activists to demand inclusivity. Olympe de Gouges, a noted playwright, published DÃ ©claration des droits de la femme et de la citoyenne1 (1791) and became a torch bearer for the upcoming feminist movement. The American civil war brought forth the focus on the changing role of women in the American society. The sporadic movement for empowering women actually started making significant stride after the WWII when the women had to go out of their homes to earn and support their families. The changing paradigms of socio-economic compulsion became the major propellant for the feminist movement in the West. Basic right for self expression and empowerment of women increasingly became a major issue for the societies at large. Feminism can be broadly defined as empowerment of women whereby they are able to exert oneÃ¢â¬â¢s choices for their own good by implementing them. In the contemporary time, empowerment has become one of the most crucial issues among the women activists as it directly influences the welfare of the women and the society at large. Empowerment facilitates
Monday, August 26, 2019
A & P story - Essay Example The literary term under analyse in this essay is Ã¢â¬Å"SheepÃ¢â¬ . The author has used personification through its usage and has shown the distinction between followers and leaders. Thus, the Ã¢â¬Å"sheepÃ¢â¬ denotes a specific clan of people, who would rather stick to the prevailed norms, rules and under commandment of a leader. Their subordination is mainly due to their pecuniary constrains and also because of their social position in a society. Thus, the author has portrayed their presence mundane in a colloquial tone and through SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s character he has evaluated their presence humdrum and their routine monotonous. Therefore, Sammy as a representative of youth has been depicted as an appreciator of distinction, rebel and change (Porter, p.1155). Hence, he looks at those Ã¢â¬Å"sheepÃ¢â¬ with abhor and abominate their trait of being a subordinate. Subsequently, he observes their apprehension towards revolution, their reluctance and fear for a change, which could ha voc their perfectly constructed so called peace. Ã¢â¬Å"Sheep pushing their carts down the aisleÃ¢â¬ (Bishop, p.228) Thus, Ã¢â¬Å"sheepÃ¢â¬ has been used to symbolize conformity without being rational at all. This sheepish trait instilled in the people made them dull, coward and subordinate of superior powers like money, authority and pre-set social norms. Hence, these dominating social authorities of 1960 era have developed and set their (Sheep) course of life and left them with little power of opinion on their own. Therefore, QueeniÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion towards dress code in the A & P grocery store and SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion towards instinctive relinquishment of his job are prime examples of uproar of revolution. Strokesie and Lengal have also been depicted as Ã¢â¬Å"sheepÃ¢â¬ like, who would think, act, dress and conduct like the rest of the sheep clan. However, they do lure for the different, but do not have the courage to appreciate, encourage or be optimistic about th e change. They prefer to stick to their sheep clan as itÃ¢â¬â¢s the known and safe path for them. On the other hand, Queenie (the leader) and her two friends; signified on being different, thus, they separated themselves from the others through their bathing suit style and did not shown a hint of embarrassment throughout their walk around the aisles. Updike has used SammyÃ¢â¬â¢s view to portray the customers as sheep too (Kirszner & Stephen, p. 363, 2004). As they walked, flocked, acted, and contemplate in the same pattern like a sheep. They loathed the change and new flock (three girls), but couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep the awe stricken expressions out of their faces at all. The figurative Ã¢â¬Å"sheepÃ¢â¬ moved up and down the aisles, one behind the other in a similar patron hence, they liked the familiarity and opposed change in any form. Initially Sammy couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help but be a hormone driven boy, who also praised the bare flesh of the three girls like other people in the st ore, but later in the story he realized his inclination and fascination towards these girls is due to their courage of taking a stand for their individuality. Hence, the author has laid great emphasis on individuality, which further buffs up the freedom to express this trait. Thus, one can clearly
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Professional Development - Essay Example The first step in the strategic plan is to secure membership as a member of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM), a world renowned organization dedicated to advancing knowledge of human resources, providing literature on managing people using contemporary leadership philosophy, and serving as an HR advocate for legal issues in business and coordinating efforts of HR policy makers (SHRM, 2013). As a student, this membership is only $35 annually, with the expenditure allowing the student to access modern HR research studies and having the ability to network with other international and domestic human resources leaders and practitioners. Through this networking, I will be able to exchange ideas and interact with reputable and competent HR professionals who will provide the knowledge necessary to become a more progressive HR leader and also stay up-to-date on advances in HR practice versus theory. Once securing the aforementioned membership with SHRM, I will begin reviewing qualitative and quantitative research data regarding how to properly motivate teams, build their long-term loyalty, and establish cohesive teams devoted to achieving strategic goals.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
The Strategy Adopted By the Capsim Company - Lab Report Example The researcher states that the adoption of the niche cost leader (low technology) strategy has enabled the company to become effective in the achievement of its strategic and operational goals. Activity ratios are used in measuring the effectiveness of company goals. The company recorded a high accounts payable turnover ratio of 14.64, meaning that it takes around 15 days for the company to pay its suppliers. The Capsim Company has been paying its suppliers at a faster rate, a clear indication of how effective it has been in its operational strategies and goals. High accounts receivable turnover of 24.33 recorded by the company is also an indication of how effective the company has been it its operational strategies. The high accounts receivable turnover ratio shows how effective the company has been in debt collection and has also been efficient in turning its inventory into sales, hence its effectiveness in the achievement of its strategic and operational goals. For the Capsim Comp any to increase and improve its operations in the future, it should change its strategy to adopt a more advanced strategy such as a cost leader with product lifecycle focus strategy. The change in its strategy will enable the company reaps from sales of high products of each and every new product introduced into the segment. The increased sales from the high-end products will then enable the company to improve its profitability. The company can also change its strategy to niche differentiator (high technology) that will enable it shifts from low technology to high technology products in the low-end segments. This will enable the company to reap more sales and profits from each of the new high technology product it introduces into the segment.
Friday, August 23, 2019
English 101 - Essay Example The online course though pre Ã¢â¬âstructured follows and asynchronous structure which is quite opposite to the Campus course which is a face Ã¢â¬â to Ã¢â¬â face synchronous course with potentially greater flexibility. The online course has one or two instructors and is team taught, whereas the campus course has only one instructor. In an online course, the participants take the course that is easily available and no attempt is made to see that students are assigned to courses according to their talent or ability. The Campus course gives the students opportunities to discuss with their professors and other peers as to which course would be suitable to study. Where studying for the course is concerned, the participants of the online courses spent fairly more time on studies each week, whereas the campus participants spent much lesser time. In an online course, though the atmosphere is conducive to learning, yet the classroom is not as lively as a campus classroom where students and professor conduct lively face Ã¢â¬â to Ã¢â¬â face discussions and interaction. Qureshi et al. (2002) noted that distance education students were less motivated than their on-campus peers. Others have expressed concern that online learners experience motivational problems as evidenced by high dropout rates (Cheng- Yuan 2000). Researchers are of the opinion that online students are more self Ã¢â¬â paced and enjoy greater autonomy unlike the on campus students who are restricted by a lot of rules and regulations. By enrolling themselves in online courses, the students procure greater technological experience and have a much better knowledge of how to handle computers which is quite opposite to the traditional campus courses. The participants of online courses were more driven by intrinsic motives without looking forward to traditional rewards of a regular class, but on campus participants prefer to embrace a more collaborative style of teaching Ã¢â¬â learning and obtain the rewards of the
Thursday, August 22, 2019
New business challenges in the Saudi market - Thesis Example The objective of this research is to acquire a better insight business challenges in the Saudi market. Many emerging economies have been turning to their new businesses for economic growth. This has been the primary drivers of economic growth for most of the emerging and developing economies. Also, majority of the businesses in many countries worldwide are dotted with these new businesses. However, in Saudi Arabia, the performances of their new businesses have been very dismal. In fact, despite accounting for over 90% of their industries, these start-up companies only manage to employ less than a quarter of their labor force. As such, this situation has been believed to be a strong contributor to the high unemployment rate in the country. However, it seems that problems beyond entrepreneurship drives are pervasive in the country. In fact, there are many foreign workers in the country and statistics show that foreign male workers hold an even bigger chunk of employment than their Saud i counterparts. This has shown a more systemic problem in the country involving the education system of Saudi Arabia. Also, there should be an increase in the contribution to the economy from the private sector and the paper will attempt to explain the underlying problems affecting the new businesses in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, there policies of the country such as the Nitaqat and Saudization will be explored so as to shed more understanding into the possible solutions to the wanting contribution of the private sector in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. ... The country is governed by a monarchy system of government and is a predominantly Muslim country. It is among the richest nations among the Arab states and this is mainly due to the oil that it exports. In 2010, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s oil fields churned out approximately 10.5 billion barrels per day (bbl) and so far, this has been the greatest source of revenue for this Arab state (CIA World Factbook, 2011 and Library of Congress, 2006). However, there is a growing need to diversify the sources of income for the government and basically, the country cannot forever rely on the public sector and its oil to be the only revenue generators for the country. Therefore, the country needs to encourage the strong growth of the public sector, especially the new businesses that will have to provide the necessary diversity to the Saudi economy as well as the needed boost for its economic growth. Although the country enjoy a relative prominence among its regional neighbours, the economic weakness of the country is seeping out reflected by the increasing unemployment in the kingdom. According to the ILO (2010), the global crisis that emanated from the deep recession among the advanced economies has adversely affected Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Being among the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most voracious oil consumers, it is easy to see why the deep downturn in the advanced economies has greatly affected the economy of oil producers, most notably Saudi Arabia. The adverse effect of the economic turmoil that deepened the problem of unemployment in Saudi Arabia clearly demonstrates the lack of diversity in its economy since it is heavily reliant on oil. This commodity has been largely controlled by the state therefore it is easy to see why the public sector has been
Lydia Peelle Mule Killers Essay In this short story Ã¢â¬Å"Mule KillersÃ¢â¬ by Lydia Peele we meet three generations of a family, grandfather, father and son as well as the different women in the story. The story is told in present time by the son as a first person narrator, but almost everything in the story is a flashback of the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s story about his youth. The story is constructed in parts; you get introduced to the lives of the father and the grandfather with no introduction of what has happened before, and then, the story jumps to the end in the present, without letting the reader know what has happened in between and what will probably happen after the story ends. The story takes place on a farm on the countryside near Nashville in the Southeast of United States. Though the story, you get an impression of an isolated society where the church is central and people has got quiet and ordinary lives while they work hard to make a living from their farms. The language in Ã¢â¬Å"Mule KillersÃ¢â¬ is observing, which we can see in the description of Eula: Ã¢â¬Å"(Ã¢â¬ ¦)her hair swept up off her neck, thick purple-black and shining, the other girlÃ¢â¬â¢s hanging limply down, onion paper pale(Ã¢â¬ ¦)Ã¢â¬ In the story we hear the father tell the son about the events that changed their lives: how he met the mother of his son and also had to give up on his dreams of love and how the lovestory of what should have been innocent turned out to be the thing that shaped his future. The tragic love story represents the way the farmland was changed in the future. Firstly, the shift from mules to tractors in the farming symbolises several things. For the grandfather, the shift to tractors and the following accident marks a new time that he does not accept and he does not take him. This we get an example of in this line: Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢re gonna see a future I canÃ¢â¬â¢t even stretch my mind around. Not any of it. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t even begin to imagine. Ã¢â¬ For the father, the loss of his mule Orphan, which was one of the things that he really cared about represents the end of his childhood. The mules is a symbol of the future and the killing of them is a bad sign for the future and also is the point of no return in this short story. The shift from child to grown-up is the main theme in this story, but also the fathers struggle to live up to his fathers ideals of what a man is, is an important aspect in the story. In his trying to be and act like a grown-up he supresses his fears and his sadness and also the things he love: music and the mules. So itÃ¢â¬â¢s like he cannot cultivate these interests any longer. Another important theme in the short story is time. During the story you get a feeling of time passing by. The father goes from being a young man to having a son, who is twice as old as the father was when the son was born, the farming changes and goes from using mulls to tractors.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Using ICT in Early Years Education Unit 6 ICT Development and learning unit 6 Introduction In this unit we will talk about ICT and ways in which it helps to develop the childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. We will also talk about ways which children can be safe guarded during internet uses and ways which families could become involved into ICT in childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. Having ICT in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s settings brings good opportunities for the children. The aim of the child care provider is to equip the children with the basic skills that are needed in order to their own learning as throughout the education system over the years. ICT is used into many and all the curriculum at the early stage of learning to use ICT which will help through and apperception of technology from the early age. 6.1 Explain the 7 types of skills that children may develop as a result of using ICT? Language. Increase Confident. Increase Knowledge. Mathematical development. Fine motor skill. Gross motor skill. Creative. Language. Through ICT children have an opportunity to develop language skills also discussion with peerÃ¢â¬â¢s, by use of theÃ¢â¬â¢ qwerty Ã¢â¬Ëkey board for recognising the simple words like their names and age. Increase Confidence. Working with computers and technology operation that children have a greater senses of confident when they are using new physical skills. This helps them to boost confident when new intellectual skills are used. When using ICT it helps children to curry out deeper level. Now days most children see computer games rather than learning tools ,thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why if we use task set with the computer children will learn in a fun way and helps them to encourage and explore new learning and building up with their confidence. Increase in world of knowledge. Most and many of daily life are used by computer technology as by television, hand held games consoles, traffic lights and more other things. Children at a early age exposure to computers there are different types of technology that can be used as will of part of life, also helps to get a good job too. Mathematical Development. All children have the chances to use mathematical software, this is now used into many per- school interactive games to support and help out with the mathematical learning .Different types of programmes gives all the children the opportunity to learn shapes and to curry out of different ways of calculations which is in a fun and educational way. Fine motor skills. ICT has many movements ,such as mouse control this helps clicking or selecting shapes on the computer screen or may be clicking and dragging a cursor to select or may high light items of text .Using ICT such as touch screen technology has added fact to fine motor skills development. Also using touch screen device or computers has different movements of fingers to the mouse clicking ,which this helps to gain the types of fine motor skills that can help to develop. Gross motor skills. In many and most child care setting ,where the child may have the access to an interactive white board where they will be able to starch and touch varies parts of the white board and use a large pen to write on the screen. Creative Development. Children have the chances to explore through the use of ICT software programmes. It gives children the opportunities to express themselves creatively by drawing basic pictures, which helps them to drag and drop items onto the screens. This will also give them the chances to use colours and graphicsÃ¢â¬â¢. The type of program could be used is Microsoft paint program which will help children to expose children to use computer drawing with the access to fined and fatter brush and pain ,colours. A good explanation of the skills that can be developed through using ICT. 6.2 Construct a booklet which can be issued to parents which identifies safety concerns for children using ICT, and how these concerns are being addressed in the child care setting. Safety concerns for children using ICT in child care setting. The key is to ensure that children have access to ICT which offers them opportunities to develop general skills and also extends their specific knowledge of that technology. Given the range of computer hardware and software now available on the educational and toy the range of computer hardware and software now available on the educational and toy market it has become increasingly difficult to make informed choices between them. The DATECÃ¢â¬â¢s publication of guidance material for parents and practitioners is therefore calculated to provide for a pressing community need. It is based on research with Practitioners and researchers in the field. Ensure an educational purpose. Typical educational uses of ICT might be something as simple as the introduction of a pretend mobile telephone to encourage imaginative role play, which children from a very early age will do quite naturally. The educational benefits of imaginative role play are well documented. A favourite computer application with many children, is Ã¢â¬ËMake a bugÃ¢â¬â¢ from the CD-ROM MillieÃ¢â¬â¢s Math House. This can be integrated as part of a more general class project, for example about insects and minibeasts. But any application introduced to children in order to develop understanding and experience of ICT should not just be enjoyable, although this is important. It should be educationally effective too. However entertaining most arcade-type games might seem, they provide little encouragement of creativity or, indeed, any other games might seem, they provide little encouragement of creativity or, indeed, any other worthwhile learning outcome and should therefore be rejected. This is not to suggest that applications should not be fun or used for leisure, only that they should be carefully chosen to have some educational value as well. Many settings and some homes use language and number drill-and-practice programs, but these have very narrow educational aims, such as practising addition or learning colours. Such programs should be used with caution, as they promote a very directive form of teaching, normally with the use of an external reward (a smiling face, a tick or a funny teaching, normally with the use of an external reward (a smiling face, a tick or a funny sound). Over-reliance on this kind of program risks reducing childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intrinsic Such programs should be used with caution, as they promote a very directive form of Sound). Over-reliance on this kind of program risks reducing childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intrinsic Teaching, normally with the use of an external reward (a smiling face, a tick or a funny sound). Over-reliance on this kind of program risks reducing childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intrinsic motivation to learn. In any event there are usually much more interesting ways of learning about these Things (see Ã¢â¬ËEnsure the child is in controlÃ¢â¬â¢, below). Children need a variety of applications which encourage a range of development, including learning about this sound). In any event there are usually much more interesting ways of learning about these. Children need a variety of applications which encourage a range of development. Where the computer use is integrated with other activities and the computer is used Effectively as a tool, for instance in imaginative role play, modelling or painting, children will benefit from greater movement and exercise away from the computer. Use of the computer should not be at the expense of outdoor opportunities and experiences which promote developing essential gross motor skills through running, climbing, jumping, and swinging using wheeled toys. Daily and frequent access to outdoor experiences is essential for all children and their development. Some ICT applications can encourage playing and being outdoors. Metal detectors have already been mentioned. Identifying ICT in the outdoor environment when out walking or using programmable toys outside can help but is no childhood (though itÃ¢â¬â¢s always possible for some young children to be taking digital pictures of their friends and them. Involving parents. Research suggests that homeÃ¢â¬âschool communication leads to better understanding and more positive attitudes for teachers and parents about each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s roles. Many studies which have the children all collaborate towards the same goals (Siraj-Blatchford, I. et al. 2002). Schools also report that Children show a more positive attitude towards learning under these circumstances, and are better behaved. Parent involvement is therefore a component of effective schools with merits which merits special consideration. When participation is well planned it can promote higher success in pupils And lead to more successful family environments. Communication between professional educators and parents is crucial in the early years and a more articulated set of aims. Educators and parents is crucial in the early years and a more articulated set of aims Between the home and early years setting can lead to better outcomes for children. But many staff is ill-equipped to know what strategies to adopt to foster better homeÃ¢â¬âschool Research shows that there is currently very little knowledge in settings about The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ICT experiences at home and that this not an area on which parents are special consideration. When participation is well planned it can promote higher success in pupils Research shows that there is currently very little knowledge in settings about the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ICT experiences at home and that this not an area on which parents are special consideration. When participation is well planned it can promote higher success in pupils and lead to more successful family environments. Communication between professional the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ICT experiences at home and that this not an area on which parents are. Location of ICT equipment. Placing the computer in a correct and safe place where it should be that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s provider can see at all times to make sure that the material is being used safely. When talking about ICT we should remember to use not just computers and laptops .All children should have the access the internet through WI Ã¢â¬âFi connection such as iPods, mobile phones. These are and may be needed to keep an eye on all times to make sure children are being safe from the they are using on the computers. Safe search Engines. We should always remember to tab the history on the Brower that is being used by the child care setting .It is important so that we know what the child has been doing for safety corners. 6.3 Identify and describe the various ways in which ICT can be used to support the early years foundation stage curriculum .Reference should be made to the various types of ICT available, not just computers? The different ways in which Early years foundation stage ICT is into the curriculum and also the following early learning goals are; Early years foundation stage which is used into ICT are and the learning goals; Literacy. Communication. Mathematics. Physical development. Literacy Early learning goals Starts to read and understand simple sentences. They are more able to use phonics, uses different words that are used most of the time. Likes to talk to others about what they have read about. ICT Skills that can be used. White board can be used in different ways with the vast programmes that is being used to help children form new words. Computer programmes also helps children with their reading skills. Communication and language. Children start to listen well. They love listening to stories, hear and respond to comments and questions. Many children start to follows rules, ideas and actions. Children also learn to express themselves. ICT skills that can be used. Have a role play in the role play area by setting up computer check in the desk also having a game of visiting a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s surgery. Could use a cordless telephone which will help children to make conversation with each other children. Children could film each other in a role play .Children also can video camera under supervision to create their own film. For computer use children can use images that children to match word to, also print images and text them together. Mathematics. Children start to learn numbers 1 to 20 and place the number and can realize which number is more or one. Uses objects to add and take way and counts backwards finding the correct answer. ICT that can be used. White board to short of different coloured shapes. Shapes can be drawn on the computer. Different types of paint programs are there for use. Also children can walk around the nursery and see the different shapes from everyday objects. Physical development. Most children start to show control of co-ordination with in bigger and smaller movements. Children start to feel more confident .They start to use everything in a correct manner. Children start to understand the importances for good health and diet and talk about ways to keep healthy. ICT skills can be used. Learn how to control a mouse. Learns how to use white board and smaller touch screen device which can be used to help to develop gross motor skills. Starts to take on t as helping in activity such as cookery and may be involved using healthy food. 6.4 Identify the ways in which families can become involved in ICT, including in particular the ways in which the child care setting can promote its use. Parents helping children to use ICT at home is very beneficial and helping children with their learning. As the child care provider who can help on how to use ICT in parents to communicate via email instead of pepper .There is also CCTV monitoring is available for all parentÃ¢â¬â¢s to have an access on to secure website which they could watch their child and what they are doing. As for parents there are many different courses that is there to help them learn the knowledge of ICT also how it helps and how to use ICT. There are different kind of programmes that all parents can learn to teach their children such as laminators, digital cameras. They can also help with basic ICT skills that is needed to help to increase their knowledge. Ways in which families could help children with ICT at home. Some studies have looked at the benefits of having access to a computer and/or the Internet at home. Ã ¯Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã · used effectively, ICT can improve childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement. Ã ¯Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã · using ICT at home and at school develops skills for life. Ã ¯Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã · Children with supportive and involved parents and carers do better at school. Ã ¯Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã · Children enjoy using ICT. Ã ¯Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã · using ICT provides access to a wider and more flexible range of learning Materials. USING ICT AT HOME Obviously access to a computer at home is highly desirable. If the student has access to a computer then they can continue their studies at a time that is convenient to them. Access to the Internet is also extremely helpful since many of the tutorials and materials for ICT are stored electronically and can be downloaded From the school network via the Internet. Nonetheless, for those without access to the Internet, a portable USB memory stick can prove to be a value substitute, allowing the students to easily copy materials in school and take them home. We have been known in many studies in the UK and across the world on ICTÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on learning and teaching, and on the importance of having access to computers and/or the internet at home, both for children and parents. How you can help your child at home. ICT is not just about using computer. It is also includes the use of controllable toys , digital cameras and everyday staff such as DVD player ,mobile phone ,Nintendo the list well never end. As a parent or carer you could help your child with things of ICT at home to improve their skills for everyday use. Writing a letter to someone. Sending an email to a friend. Drawing a picture on screen. Using the Internet to research on home work. Using interactive games. Parents that help children with ICT at home it helps in many ways which will help them to improve with their work and skills which will help them to meet their target of work set for them. It will give them the chance to boost their confidantes. Developing this theme of the visual we use our digital cameras to record childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s progress and achievements which we share with parents. Again, how much more enjoyable and informative is a photograph than a tick box! Physical development, creative development and personal and social education especially lend themselves towards being reflected through a visual medium. We use our digital camera to communicate with parents about their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences, we load them onto the computer and use photos as screen savers and use our touch screen monitor so parents can turn the screen page photographs at a touch. Also there are many other things and ways in which a parent can help their child to learn the way they need to meet their goal that they have too. References Question 1 Open study college folder. Question 2 Light, P Butterworth (1992) context and origination of learning and knowing, Hemel Hempstead; Harvester wheatear online. Question 3 Open study college folder. http;//osclinks.com/99 Question 4 Open study college folder.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Shipping News Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m tired of going somewhere. I want to be there!Ã¢â¬ These words spoken by Bunny Quoyle, riding along with her family on their way to the old homestead in Killick Claw, New Foundland seems an exclamation to a deeper desire to settle what has been an unsettled and unhappy life. The quote could also define the transition that Quolyle, BunnyÃ¢â¬â¢s father, experiences. Quoyle is nowhere it seems, until he finally arrives somewhere meaningful. The transformation is a lot about getting over the loss of his wife, Petal, but also much about getting over himself as a loser and getting to a place of contentedness and confidence. QuoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s life rides on waves Ã¢â¬â some small that are body-surfing-like, others that are huge and tumultuous that crash onshore with Tsunami-like devastation. Eventually, he manages to find a place suitable and sustaining. Quoyle began life feeling, believing that he had been born into the wrong family; that somehow he ended up with the wrong parents. He stumbled into adulthood, feeling invisible until someone noticed. His lack of esteem and confidence is evidenced by his always trying to hide his chin with his hand; the hand always goes to the chin, his monstrous chin, when he feels threatened. His love for Petal is partly based on the fact that he caught her attention Ã¢â¬â once, quite by accident Ã¢â¬â and that they had a meaningless sexual relationship that resulted in two children. He is the sort of character you feel sorry for from the start, feel badly that heÃ¢â¬â¢ll never become anybody, never make something of himself, yet you want to cheer for him all along the way. As we get to know Quoyle, we realize that although he has a negative self image, is always self conscious and has no confidence in his abilities, he has a huge heart and a huge capacity to love, and he especially has a huge consciousness to do what is right for his family. Quoyle is a man growing into himself. His first opportunity to grow comes by an invitation from his aunt to move to New Foundland, to settle in his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s ancestral home and to find his roots. Ã¢â¬Å"You can be anything you want with a fresh start,Ã¢â¬ says his aunt in convincing him to go. And off they all go Ã¢â¬â the aunt, Quoyle, Bunny and Sunshine Ã¢â¬â and all their self-possessed demons.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Maturation of Siddhartha Siddhartha, by Herman Hesse is the story of a young Indian noble who ventures off in the world to find an understanding of the meaning of life. His journey begins as a young Brahmin who yearned to unwind the complexities of his existence. He ends as an old sage who has found peace within himself and his surroundings. Throughout the book, Hesse allows the reader to trace Siddhartha's maturation process both through his experiences, and people with whom he comes in contact. During his journey, he makes a number of choices, "turns", that put him on a path of his maturation which is marked by self discovery and independence. Siddhartha's maturation is developed by three key events: his meeting with Buddha, his attempted suicide, and the arrival/departure of his son, as they all contribute to his self discovery and individuality. Siddhartha's meeting with Gautama, the Buddha, is the first key experience that contributes to his maturation process. After several years of living the ascetic life of a Samana, Siddhartha decides to seek out Gautama, "The Illustrious One," as a possible source of assistance in his journey to find his inner self. After their meeting, however, Siddhartha becomes more convinced that the Buddha's methods satisfy his logical and tangible needs, but will not bring him any closer to realizing his spiritual and metaphysical needs. The theme of maturity presents itself in Siddhartha's conclusion that if he is to achieve an immaterial balance, it must be on his own. He understands that the Buddha had a remarkable experience, but it is a personal one. Siddhartha sees that his development process relies on his forging his own experiences, and his attainment of self realization can only be made by himself, regardless of what knowledge Gautama may impart to him. The second experience that puts Siddhartha on a path to maturity is his attempted suicide. Preceding this incident, Siddhartha made a complete turnaround and decided to explore his worldly needs and lives the life of a lover, merchant, and gambler. As a student of lust under Kamala and money under Kamaswami, the protagonist becomes self centered, greedy, and no longer one who can "think, fast, and write." His time in the village is
Sunday, August 18, 2019
History of the Ancient Olympic Games The Ancient Greek Olympics were not only sporting events, it was a celebration to honor the great and powerful Zeus. The Ancient Olympics were held every four years at the famous Olympia, a district of Elis, here all free Greek men were allowed to compete. The first record of the Olympic Games was held in 776 B.C. The main sports were the Pentathlon, the Equestrian Events, Pankration, and Boxing. The Pentathlon was the name for the five events in Greek gymnastics: running, jumping, wrestling, discus throwing, and javelin throwing which began with the 18th Olympiad. In the wrestling event, wrestlers were anointed with oil, dusted with powder, and forbidden to bite or gouge one another. Wrestling was looked upon as a weapon-free military exercise. Since there was no weapons wrestlers that competed used their weight and strength as an advantage especially since there were no weight categories. The Javelin was thrown in the same form back in ancient times as it is thrown today. The first recorded Olympic Games had one event, a race, called the stade which is a measure of the distance of the length of the track. By 724 B.C. a two-length race was added and by 700 B.C. there were longer distance races. By 720 B.C., men participated naked, except in the foot race in armor that weighed between fifty to sixty pounds. The outfit included a helmet, greaves, and a shield that helped young men build speed and stamina in preparation for war. The Pentathlon included three running events such as the Stade, the Diaulos, and the Dolichos. The Stade was a 200 yard foot race, was the first and only Olympic event for 13 Games. The dolichos was a variable length foot race averaging twenty stades or four thousand yards for the fifteenth Olympiad. The Diaulos was a four hundred yard foot race that was instituted for the next Olympic Games. The discus was considered by ancient Greeks, an event of rhythm, precision, and finesse of a competitor to throw the discus was as important as his strength. The discus was made of stone, iron, bronze, or lead, and was shaped like a flying saucer. The Sizes were different for the boys' division, since the boys were not expected to throw the same weighted discus as the men. The athletes who competed in the jump event used lead or stone jump weights called halteres shaped like telephone receivers to increase ... ...rces, but in the historic years their founder is said to be Oxylos whose descendant Ifitos later rejuvenated the games. According to tradition, the Olympic Games began in 776 B.C. when Ifitos made a treaty with Lycourgos the king and famous legislator of Sparta and Cleisthenes the king of Pissa (Coote p. 13). The text of the treaty was written on a disc and kept in the Heraion. In this treaty that was the decisive event for the development of the sanctuary as a Panhellenic centre, the "sacred truce" was agreed, that is to say the ceasing of fighting in the entire Greek world for as long as the Olympic Games were on. As a reward for the victors, the cotinus, which was a wreath made from a branch of wild olive tree that was growing next to the opisthodomus of the temple of Zeus in the sacred Altis, was established after an order of the Delphic oracle. Works Cited Coote, James. A Picture History of the Olympics. London, England: Tom Stacey Limited, 1972. Kristy, Davida. Olympics How the Games Began. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications Company, 1995. Grolier, the Associated Press. The Olympic Story. Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Enterprises INC., 1979.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Davis-Moore thesis Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Davis-Moore thesis discusses and analyzes the social equality and inequality and explains why different people obtain different rewards for the jobs that they do (Macionis, 2009). The general topic of the thesis is social stratification, which according to Davis-Moore, is present in every society due to the reason that it has some consequential benefits for the operation and the growth of the society. According to Davis-Moore, more reward is given to people that hold positions in the society that are considered to have some functional importance, such as that of a medical doctor (Macionis, 2009). The result of the reward system in the society implies equality in opportunities while promoting inequality in terms of the outcome that people receive. Social stratification, according to Davis-Moore thesis, makes the society more productive as well as efficient. Ã Ã Ã Ã The functional consequence of inequality for society helps in ensuring that the various roles that are considered to be important in the society are filled by the relevant and skilled people (Macionis, 2009). Talented people in the society are supplied with the necessary opportunities and motivation that enables them to undertake training that result in filling of the important roles in the society (Macionis, 2009). The important functions are performed by people who are most talented. The greatest rewards are also offered to the position that require a lot of training and are of importance in the maintenance of the order and system of the society (Macionis, 2009). For example, doctors train for many years and, therefore, are expected to receive higher perks due to the kind of role they play in the society. Ã Ã Ã Ã Engineers and pilots also take a lot of time to train hence the notion that they should receive higher rewards for their jobs. Melvin Tumin criticized Davis-MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis of social stratification by saying that there has been no demonstration of functional importance of the varying positions in the society (Macionis, 2009). Melvin also notes that such a demonstration has not been made. Reference Macionis, J. J. (2009). Sociology. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Education. Source document
Friday, August 16, 2019
Discuss GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions at the end of the novel. How can we justify what he does to Lennie? How can we condemn it? Although murder is morally incorrect, mercy killing can be justified as it may prevent a later inevitable and painful death. In the novella Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ written by John Steinbeck, the character George shoots his friend, Lennie. Whilst GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions can be condemned, George had good intentions towards the death of his friend. Steinbeck makes it clear throughout the novella that although horrid incidents may occur such as LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s death that it was how it was during the Great Depression. However one may like to condemn GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions in shooting his only friend, George had forgivable intentions as to why he chose to shoot Lennie. GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s murdering of his friend was without malicious intent. It is clear from the start in the novella that George cares for Lennie, as he protects and looks out for him. Killing Lennie was not an easy choice.. He also prevented a further painful and torturous death for Lennie, as Curley plans to Ã¢â¬Ëshoot that big bastardÃ¢â¬â¢s guts right outta him.Ã¢â¬â¢ This implies that Curley intends no mercy and an excruciating death awaits Lennie. By shooting his friend, George gives Lennie a peaceful death. During the scene where the two men are in the bush, George once again recites their dream which reminds the audience and Lennie of their friendship. He tells George, Ã¢â¬ËI got you anÃ¢â¬â¢ you got me.Ã¢â¬â¢ This conveys in the idea that George truly cared for Lennie and has no vicious intent when he is to shoot Lennie. By shooting Lennie, George gave him a merciful and peaceful death with no intended malicion. The murder of Lennie is justified as Steinbeck shows the audience through the novella, realistic themes that were evident in the 1930s. SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s writing style has been described as a naturalist or realist type. It is clear from the start, that in Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ there is a predatory nature in human existence. Candy says to George, Ã¢â¬Å"I shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have let no stranger shoot my dog.Ã¢â¬ Having said that, it foreshadows LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s death and what George must do. It also conveys in the idea that Lennie will face a similar fate to CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s old dog who is weak and handicapped. Society does not tolerate the weak as there were limited resources during the GreatÃ Depression. As seen in the scene where Slim drowns the smallest pups, it is clear that Steinbeck is trying to send across the message that only the strongest lived during the Great Depression. John Steinbeck gave the reader a realistic view on what would have happened during a difficu lt time and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s death is similar to what would have occurred during the 1930s. The final reason that justifies LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s death, is when one ponders the reality of the men attaining the ranch. As evident in the novella, Lennie has no problem killing small animals and even people. If the reader is to imagine Lennie on a ranch with a large group of animals, especially rabbits; no matter how many times Candy calculated the numbers, there would be no possible way for the men to make a profit off the rabbits given the amount Lennie would kill due to his brute strength. By forgetting the reality of the situation, the men forget that the ranch was not even a reachable goal in the first place. As indicated by George, Ã¢â¬Å"I think I knowed from the very first. I think I knowed weÃ¢â¬â¢d never do her.Ã¢â¬ This supports the idea that there was really no chance of the men actually getting the ranch. By killing Lennie, George puts an end to the unrealistic dream in which Lennie would have created problems in making the dream farm profitable. GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are justified through realism that the ending scene portrays. When George shoots Lennie, he ensures he dies a peaceful death. If George did not kill Lennie, Lennie would have faced a possible torturous death. His actions are also justified as George meant no malicious intent and only wants the best for his friend. Lennie would have made life difficult even on their own land. Steinbeck shows the realism that people in the Great Depression would have faced in situations similar to Lennie and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s; he shows us a piece of history and the tragedies attached. Although one may condemn GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s shooting of Lennie, mercy killing was the best choice for both of the men. Loved the point about the Depression times. (Paragraph 3) and also the Ã¢â¬Å"unrealistic Ã¢â¬ dream point in the next paragraph You could also discuss the fact that George also Ã¢â¬Å"losesÃ¢â¬ something by killingÃ Lennie. He really believed their relationship was special. ( George tells Slim this). Killing Lennie wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just the easy way out for George. Once again, an original approach. I am sure your exam essay will reflect your mature approach and your hard work.
The global spread of coffee growing and drinking all started with a curious goat and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what legends say. 9th century Ethiopian goat herder Kaldi drank a concoction made from the beans after seeing his energetic goats eat them. The Sufi monks of Yemen in the 15th century were said to drink it as well. During the 17th century when coffee was introduced to Europe, the popularity of cafes followed the same pattern as most coffee houses around the world. It quickly became a venue for people to congregate, exchange views, write poems, plays, and political testaments, conduct business transactions, participate in cultural exchange and often relax with a good book. The popularity of coffee shop had served as a mailing address, because many people were regulars. When you want to go to exchange news, share ideas and get advice, you go to a coffee shop. It has been that way for quite some time. Coffee shops had been places of learning; of making business deals; scientific, literary, political, philosophical, and economic discussions; and even the typical gossip. At the beginning of the nineteenth century nearly all coffee exported on the world market was produced by European colonies. Two-thirds came from French colonies. But despite the fact that the following century would witness what Eric Hobsbawm called Ã¢â¬Å"The Age of EmpireÃ¢â¬ and Lance Davis termed Ã¢â¬Å"high imperialismÃ¢â¬ , colonialism would cease being important in coffee production. (Though colonies certainly continued to be vital to the production of tea and sugar. ) This occurred precisely at the same time that coffee consumption rose vertiginously in most European colonial powers. Coffee was treated differently than sugar and rubber in the nineteenth century Age of Empire because its low technological demands meant that an independent country richly endowed with the factors of production, Brazil, could begin producing on an unprecedented scale. Cheap fertile land and slave labor allowed coffee prices to plummet after 1820 and remain low until the last quarter of the century creating supply-induced demand. BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s exports jumped 75 fold between independence in 1822 and 1899. World consumption grew more than 15 fold in the nineteenth century. Consumers were not very price conscious because they were long buffered from recognizing the price. If they drank in cafes, they were unaware of the type of coffee they were drinking. As the price of one sort rose, cafe owners often blended in cheaper substitute grades rather than raise their price. he same seems to have been true for grocers. Rather than risk losing their clientele, they competed on blends, not on price. They also sought to keep prices constant. Price rises were often not passed on to the consumer. Instead, cheaper blends were used or grocers reduced their profit margin. Moreover, as coffee sipping became customary and even habit-forming, it was transformed into a necessity for many. As a result, coffee in the twentieth century became price and income inelastic. Thus we are presented with the irony that the international coffee market at the turn of the twentieth century, one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest commodity markets, was relatively price inelastic (within in a reasonably large range) at both the production and the consumption end, though profit-driven commercial and industrial intermediaries were extremely conscious of price. In other words, it was quite imperfect. The Philippine Coffee Company (PCC) says the first coffee tree was introduced in Lipa, Batangas, in 1740 by a Spanish Franciscan monk and soon spread to neighboring towns of Ibaan, Lemery, San Jose, Taal, and Tanauan. Ã¢â¬Å"Batangas owed much of its wealth to the coffee plantations in these areas and Lipa eventually became the coffee capital of the Philippines. We are one of the few countries that produces the four varieties of commercially viable coffee: Arabica, Liberica (Barako), Excelsa, and Robusta. This is attributed to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s climate and soil ranging from the lowlands of southern Luzon to the mountain ranges of the Cordillera and Mindanao. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1880, the Philippines was the fourth largest exporter of coffee beans, and when the coffee rust hit Brazil, Africa, and Java, it became the only source of coffee beans worldwide,Ã¢â¬ PCC says. Our glory days as one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s coffee centers lasted until 1889 when coffee rust hit the Philippine shores, coupled with an insect infestation. Production plunged to 1/6th its original amount. By then, Brazil had regained its position as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading producer of coffee. A few of the surviving coffee seedlings were transferred from Batangas to Cavite, where they flourished. Our ranking fell because many of the coffee growing areas Ã¢â¬â like rice fields and salt beds of Las Pinas Ã¢â¬â were eaten by housing and commercial developments. Less area was allotted to coffee because farmers had shifted to other cash crops. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular beverages. Some claim it is the most widely consumed liquid in the world aside from water. CoffeeÃ¢â¬â¢s success as a beverage undoubtedly owes both to the caffeine it harbors and to its sensory pleasure. Coffee lovers come to associate the energizing lift of the caffeine with the richness and aroma of the beverage that delivers it. In our culture, bookstores are also seen as social, intellectual and downright hip. Many bookstores are a place of community where people gather and know one another and talk. The atmosphere in a bookstore typically invites customers to relax and browse the shelves. The concept of a bookstore and coffee house is a good combination that will perfectly gives the bookworm persons and a coffee lover the opportunity to purchase their favorite titles and discover new books while relaxing and enjoying a cup of coffee. The Company is then formed because of the said conceptualized idea and inspiration. COMPANY PROFILE The name of the company will be CTB that stands for COFFEE, TABLE, BOOK. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s name was originated from the idea of coffee table book which means a hardcover book that is intended to sit on a coffee table or similar surface in an area where guests sit and are entertained, thus inspiring conversation or alleviating boredom. They tend to be oversized and of heavy construction, since there is no pressing need for portability. The Company CTB will be a combination of piles of books ready for reading and a comfortable cafe that provides place for bookworms to sip coffee and talk with their friends while enjoying their books. It is a modern type of library and a much more public place for reading with a twist for having a cafe in it. It is a very interesting place for a person who wants to meet new people who are also interested in reading, studying and exploring new things and ideas through books. The cafe is really just an addition to the whole idea. It gives new impression to reading. Reading with a cup of coffee or tea with you is a lot better than reading without anything to drink or eat. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a higher level of coming into a public place to look for interesting books and a cafe with it. TAGLINE Ã¢â¬Å"Cool your coffee and bring it closer to your heart and mind. Ã¢â¬ Our tagline represents our business in the most promising way. We decided to state it as cool your coffee, Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ meaning call your coffee. Cool because we want it to be mind-teasing and catchy so that customers will notice the line and think. Call your coffee and order it in the CTB shop to relax while reading your favorite novels and bring it closer to your heart and mind. Customers will definitely bring it closer to their heart because the coffee goes to the heart and down to the veins of an individual. The heart and the mind as we all know, is really Like Coffee, Table, Books shop, customers will hold our business close to their hearts and mind, remembering every moment theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve had with us. Every learning they will earn with what they have read, we are assuring them that they will treasure everything we have shared with them forever. LOCATION The CTB store is located in 1199 unit 5 ground flr. Lemon Square Building, Edsa, Munoz Quezon City with the size of 102. 50 square meters. There are adequate parking space and have reasonably priced per square meter. Rental payments as well additional payment will be stated within the leasing terms including the registration of utilities and amenities. BUSINESS DESCRIPTION VISION To become the foremost Coffee shop in the local and international industry providing the best products and high quality experience. MISSION. To create a unique, comfortable and relaxing environment while enjoying the best hot and cold coffee drinks at an affordable price making it perfect. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Ã¢â¬ ¢ To increase the frequency of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ visitations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To maintain positive sales growth and increase market share. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Increase brand awareness Ã¢â¬ ¢ To open new branches of stores nationwide every year. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To ensure that equipments used for cold and hot coffee drinks are well-maintained and in good condition. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Develop new products and innovate services yearly. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Develop an increase in sales while achieving a status quo state and decrease in marketing expenses. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To create a cozy and relaxing ambiance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To give seminars and trainings to employees and retain their Standard Operating Procedures. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To improve promotional activities and advertisements quarterly Ã¢â¬ ¢ To listen and implement feedbacks, suggestions and opinions of customers for the improvement and betterment of the business. COMPANYÃ¢â¬â¢S FORM OF ORGANIZATION The company CTB is a sole proprietor type of business because the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s primary purpose is to generate profit. A sole proprietorship is a business owned by a single individual. This sole owner is responsible for the entire business and accepts complete responsibility for the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s liabilities, as well as its income. Unlike other legal structures, the sole proprietorship requires less paperwork and is subject to few business restrictions and regulations. ? Characteristics of Sole Proprietor Management and Control A sole proprietorship is operated by a single individual; thus, the sole proprietor has exclusive management and control of the business. Personal Liability A sole proprietor is personally liable for all obligations and debts of the business. Thus, the business assets and personal assets of the sole proprietor are subject to the risks of the business. Moreover, in California, if the owner is married, the martial community property is at risk and subject to attachment by creditors. If the business is conducted under a name which does not show the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s surname or implies the existence of additional owners, the owner is required to file a fictitious name certificate and publish a notice in the newspapers. Capitalization There are no rules governing capitalization of a sole proprietorship. Continuity of Existence The sole proprietorship continues as long as the sole proprietor desires to operate the business and is legally competent. If the business owner is adjudged legally incompetent, becomes incapacitated, or dies, the sole proprietorship ceases to exist. An owner may sell the business as he or she chooses. Taxation A sole proprietor is taxed on business income and may deduct allowable business expenses on his or her personal income tax return. ? Advantages of Sole Proprietor Easy formation: The formation of sole proprietorship business is very easy and simple. No legal formalities are involved for setting up the business excepting a license or permission in certain cases. The entrepreneur with initiative and certain amount of capital can set up such form of business. Direct motivation: The entrepreneur owns all and risks all. The entire profit goes to his pocket. This motivates the proprietor to put his heart and soul in the business to earn more profit. Thus, the direct relationship between effort and reward motivates the entrepreneur to manage the business more efficiently and effectively. Better control: The entrepreneur takes all decisions affecting the business. He chalks out the plan and executes the same. His eyes are on everything and everyone. There is no scope for laxity. This results in better control of the business and ultimately leads to efficiency. Promptness in decision-making: When the decision is to be taken by one person, it is sure to be quick. Thus, the entrepreneur as sole proprietor can arrive at quick decisions concerning the business by which he can take the advantage of any better opportunities. Secrecy: Each and every aspect of the business is looked after by the proprietor and the business secrets are known to him only. He has no legal obligation to publish his accounts. Thus, the maintenance of adequate secrecy leaves no scope to his competitors to be aware of the business secrets. Flexibility in operations: The sole proprietorship business is undertaken on a small scale. If any change is required in business operations, it is easy and quick to bring the changes. Scope for personal touch: There is scope for personal relationship with the entrepreneur and customers in sole proprietorship business. Since the scale of operations is small and the employees work under his direct supervision, the proprietor maintains a harmonious relationship with the employees. Similarly, the proprietor can know the tastes, likes and dislikes of the customers because of his personal rapport with the customers. Inexpensive formation and management: The cost of formation of a sole proprietorship is the minimum because no cost is involved in its formation excepting the license fee in certain cases. The management of the business is also inexpensive as no specialists are normally appointed in various functional areas of the business which is the added advantages. Free from Government control: Sole proprietorship is the least regulated form of business. Regulated laws are almost negligible in its formation, day-to-day operation and dissolution. Easy dissolution: Like that of formation, the dissolution of the sole proprietorship is also very easy. Since the proprietor is the supreme authority and no regulations are applicable for closure of the business he can dissolve his business any time he likes. Socially desirable: New and small entrepreneurs can take up business on small- scale basis. There will be no scope for concentration of wealth in few hands. Sole proprietorship continues its operation in almost each and every area of business activity and caters to the need of the society. Further, it provides ample opportunities for large-scale self-employment for rural and less skilled personnel. Thus, it is socially desirable. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CTB will offer its customers the best tasting coffee beverages in the area. This will be achieved by using high-quality ingredients and strictly following preparation guidelines. The store layout, menu listings and marketing activities will be focused on maximizing the sales of higher margin espresso drinks. Along with the espresso drinks, brewed coffee, as well as some refreshment beverages will be sold in the coffee shop. CTB will also offer its clients, cookies, muffins, sandwiches and bread. On the other hand, the store offerings will be supplemented by small range of books, magazine and other references that customers can read while drinking coffee. PRODUCTS: COFFEE AND ESPRESSO Regular Coffee Americano Cappucino Macchiato *Caramel & Hazenut Caffe Latte Caffe Mocha ICED COFFEE Iced Americano Iced Cappucino Iced Macchiato *Caramel & Hazelnut Iced Latte Iced Mocha Latte NON COFFEE HOT DRINKS Hot Chocolate Hot Vanilla NON COFFEE FROZEN DRINKS Chocolate Mocha Vanilla Cookies and Cream Hazelnut BAKED GOODIES Sandwiches and Breads Muffins Cookies Croissants Donuts PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT The Product Research and Development Plan of CTB will provide a clear framework of challenging targets for the consumer over the next years. Strategic view of the needs and opportunities to achieve outcomes that meet the expectations of industry will be the key to the success of this plan. Within the next two years, the company was expected to branch out in different areas of Metro Manila and other provinces. As seasons change, CTB will be offering products that will enhance sales and satisfy its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ desires. During summer months, CTB will subsidize lower hot beverage sales with frozen coffee drinks, as well as soft drinks, and other cold beverages. CTB will also have special beverages during holiday seasons. The CTB will carry a variety of quality products that will enable to provide full service delivery to espresso stands and coffee houses that will be offered 1 year after the store was established. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying philosophy in selecting products is to choose lines that will bring consistent quality, competitive prices, and product satisfaction to our customers. TARGET MARKET CHARACTERICTICS |CHARACTERISTICS |PRIMARY |SECONDARY | |LOCATION |Nearby school/offices and establishments |Nearby residents of District 1 and 2 of Quezon | | | |City | |AGE |16-35 |36-59 | |GENDER |Male and Female |Male and Female | |OCCUPATION |Students/ Company employees |Entrepreneurs | |STATUS |Middle Class |Upper Class | |TYPE OF BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENT |Schools/ Company offices |Commercial Buildings and Banks | SURVEY QUESTIONS 1. Age_________ Gender _________ Occupation _________ 2. How often do you visit a coffee shop within a month? o 1-2 o 3-4 o 5-6 o 7-more 3. How many cups of coffee do you consume in a day? | | |1 cup per day | |2-3 cups per day | |Greater than 3 cups per day (How many? ) | | | | | |4. What kind of coffee do you usually buy/order? | |Regular coffee | |Espresso | |Latte | |Iced Coffee | |Other____ (specify) | | | |5. Which snacks do you regular purchase? | |Donut | |Muffin | |Cookies | |Sandwiches | |Cake slices | |Pastries | |Other________(specify) | | | | | |6. How much do you spend in each month in coffee shop? | | | |Maximum 1000 | |Minimum 100 | |Average 350 | |Sum 1,400 | | | |7. What is the reason why do you want to go to a coffee shop? | |To release stress | |To study/read | |Social gathering | |Drinking habit | |Others_______(specify) | MARKET SIZE AND TRENDS Coffee is the drink of choice for many people across the world which is the reason why coffee shops are so popular. People love coffee, so many small business people capitalize on this by opening up coffee shops. Some coffee shops provide Internet access so that people can use their laptops while they enjoy their coffee. This is especially helpful for busy students on the go. The coffee shop trend continues because there is a huge demand for it. If you took a road trip across America, you would find coffee shops on just about every corner. While the biggest and most well-known chain is Starbucks, you will also see many mom-and-pop coffee shops or small coffee shop stands. Even gas stations sell coffee to truckers and other travelers on the road. Brazil has by far the most coffee drinkers worldwide, so you will certainly notice that the coffee shop trends are very popular in Brazil. Some people even say that they can smell the aroma of coffee in the air. Coffee with no sugar or added creamers has no calories, and coffee shops have come up with the trend of offering many coffee drinks and treats that are low-fat. Our generation grew up thinking of coffee as a morning pick-me-up and after dinner drink for adults only. The 18-24 year old group has a different view of coffee, thanks to the coffee shop culture. Where older generations gathered at the local soda shop, these kids made the local coffee shop their afternoon hangout. Starbucks and other local chains improved their coffees with flavors, sugar and many creams. This makes their coffee more appealing to the younger crowd. As those kids graduate from high school and move on to college, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re finding that their love of coffee moves along with them. MARKETING STRATEGY CTBÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy will be focused at getting new customers, retaining the existing customers, getting customers to spend more and come back more often. Establishing a loyal customer base is of a paramount importance since such customer core will not only generate most of the sales but also will provide favorable referrals. Ã¢â¬ ¢ PRODUCT LINE. | | | | | |COFFEE |NON COFFEE HOT DRINKS |NON COFFEE FROZEN DRINKS |FOOD | |Iced Coffee |Hot Chocolate |Chocolate |Sandwiches and Breads | |Latte |Hot Vanilla |Mocha |Muffins | |Frap | |Vanilla |Cookies | |Espresso | |Cookies and Cream |Croissants | | | |Hazelnut |Donuts | Ã¢â¬ ¢ POSITIONING The company will be positioned as a brand providing high quality products at reasonable prices for busy, mobile people whose time is already at a premium, but desires refreshing beverages in a welcoming space that fosters a warm, comfortable and professional environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL Distribution channels move products and services from businesses to consumers and to other businesses. Given the importance of distribution channels along with the limited resources generally available to small businesses it is particularly important for entrepreneurs to make a careful assessment of their channel alternatives, because an effective channel of distribution strategy is also a major contributing factor for the success of any business entity to be established. Raw materials will be purchased from the suppliers and then delivered to the house of the sole proprietor for storage. The ingredients needed for the production of the final product are made available at the food stall processed into a final product to be served to the customers. The proposed business can offer and acquire sales directly from the market because it has the advantage of having the direct contact with the consumer. Ã¢â¬ ¢ ADVERTISING AND PROMOTIONS We would adopt the following promotion strategies: o Loyalty Cards. o Coffee Feedback Cards o Refills only half the price o Coffee tasting event promotion o Seasonal product promotion o Meal-Focused Promotions o Provide Complementary Services and Products o Print Advertisements in different designated locations o Social Networking (engage fans in twitter, Facebook, Youtube and other photo sharing sites. ) MANAGEMENT PLAN Background and primary responsibilities of the management team In any business, employees have important roles in an organization towards achieving the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s goal. The management aspect of COFFEE,TABLE,BOOK or CTB is composed of proposed techniques and strategies that will be used for the improvement of its employees. These can be done through proper hiring and training of workers. Every employee have their specific duties and responsibilities in building up a business. There will be a designated work and section for each of them in a period of time. The shuffling of assigned tasks are expected for the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ versatility and for them to be an effective, efficient and knowledgeable about their jobs. With proper utilization of its resources, it would be sure that the company will yield its expected return of income. The success of this project lies on the efficient and effective use of human resources in the following functions of management such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The top management of the business shall carry out its responsibilities by governing its employees and being responsible in taking in to actions the policies of the company. Also, they will be in charge of monitoring and supervising the trainees and former employees as well. It is very substantial to know the capacity and capability of the people working inside the organization and their manner of interrelationship with other employees as well as with the management. A manager will look after the employees and will assure that every employee are working and striving for the business standards. Overall, every person shall work effectively and contribute skills in order to achieve success of the organization. CTB Coffee,Table,Book [pic] by: Busita, Lorica R. Dionco, Criselda Marie A. Dumencel, Roshell B. Reyes, Jenny Lyn M. Rivera, Juvia Katte M.