Wednesday, November 27, 2019
AP Calculus BC Score and Course Credit Guide Of all the Advanced Placement courses a high school student can take, AP Calculus BC is probably the one that will most impress colleges. Nearly all colleges and universities will offer college credit for a high score on the exam. This includes top engineering schools such as MIT, Stanford, and Georgia Tech. About the AP Calculus BC Exam The AP Calculus BC exam covers topics such as functions, graphs, limits, derivatives and integrals. Unlike the Calculus AB exam, it also coversÃ parametric, polar, and vector functions. Because the BC exam covers more material than the AB test, it often offers students higher course placement, more course credit, and greater acceptance at colleges with rigorous math programs. Most colleges and universities have a math or quantitative reasoning requirement, so a high score on the AP Calculus BC exam will often fulfill this requirement. But the exam is more difficult, and in 2018 just 139,376 students took the BC exam. By comparison, 308,538 students took the Calculus AB exam. Youll notice, however, that the average scores on the BC exam tend to be higher than those on the AB exam. Dont be fooled into thinking this means the BC exam is easier or has a more forgiving grading standard. The reality is that the scores are higher because the students who take the BC exam tend to come from schools with strong math programs. The comparison of BC and AB exam takers is fairly easy, for the College Board released AB subscores for students who take the BC exam (the content of the AB exam is part of the BC exam). In 2018, the mean score for students taking the Calculus AB exam was a 2.94. The mean AB subscore for students taking the BC exam was a 3.97. AP Calculus BC Score Information The AP Calculus BC exam tends to be taken by very strong students, so the scores are higher than most other AP exams. In 2018, 79.8% of test-takers scored a 3 or higher indicating that they might qualify for college credit. The mean was a 3.8, and scores were distributed as follows: AP Calculus BC Score Percentiles (2018 Data) Score Number of Students Percentage of Students 5 56,324 40.4 4 25,982 18.6 3 28,891 20.7 2 20,349 14.6 1 7,830 5.6 To learn more specific information about the AP Calculus BC exam, be sure to visit the official College Board website. AP Calculus BC College Course Placement The table below presents some representative data from a variety of colleges and universities. This information is meant to provide a general overview of the scoring and placement practices related to the AP Calculus BC exam. Youll want to contact the appropriate Registrars office to get AP placement information for a particular college, and the placement information can change from year to year. AP Calculus BC Scores and Placement College Score Needed Placement Credit Georgia Tech 3, 4 or 5 MATH 1501 (4 semester hours) Grinnell College 3, 4 or 5 4 semester credits; MAT 123, 124, 131; 4 additional credits are possible for a 4 or 5 LSU 3, 4 or 5 MATH 1550 (5 credits) for a 3; MATH 1550 and 1552 (9 credits) for a 4 or 5 MIT 4 or 5 18.01, Calculus I (12 units) Mississippi State University 3, 4 or 5 MA 1713 (3 credits) for a 3; MA 1713 and 1723 (6 credits) for a 4 or 5 Notre Dame 3, 4 or 5 Mathematics 10250 (3 credits) for a 3; Mathematics 10550 and 10560 (8 credits) for a 4 or 5 Reed College 4 or 5 1 credit; placement determined in consultation with the faculty Stanford University 3, 4 or 5 MATH 42 (5 quarter units) for a 3; MATH 51 (10 quarter units) for a 4 or 5 Truman State University 3, 4 or 5 MATH 198 Analytic Geometry Calculus I and MATH 263 Analytic Geometry Calculus II (10 credits) UCLA (School of Letters and Science) 3, 4 or 5 8 credits and Calculus for a 3; 8 credits and MATH 31A and Calculus for a 4; 8 credits and MATH 31A and 31B for a 5 Yale University 4 or 5 1 credit for a 4; 2 credits for a 5 A Final Word about AP Calculus BC AP classes are important in the college admissions process, and Calculus BC is one of the best AP subjects you can take. Many students struggle in math, and if you are successful in this AP class, you are showing that you are well prepared for the challenges of college-level mathematics. The course is a particularly good choice for students planning to enter engineering, science, and business fields.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Celebrate Elementary School Graduation Elementary school graduation is a big deal. It celebrates all of the achievements your students have made thus far in school. Whether you call it graduation day, moving up day, or recognition day, this is a day to honor and celebrate your students moving on to middle school. Many school districts try and make this day special by holding graduation ceremonies to celebrate their students accomplishments. While this is a wonderful way to acknowledge students, their are other ways to recognize your students achievements, here are a few. Create a Journal Create a journal for each student in your class. This may take a little planning ahead of time but will definitely be worth it. Throughout the year have students write things they are thankful for, or what they want to accomplish by the end of the year. Also, ask their fellow classmates and teachers to write something nice about them. Then at the end of the school year, present them with their journals. Have a Parade A great way to recognize and honor your students moving up to the middle school is to have a parade. Students can make special t-shirts to wear and decorate the hallways. Moving Up Day Dance While dances are usually only in the middle and high school, they can be a fun way for elementary students to celebrate graduating. Plan a special dance for all of the students moving up to middle school and make sure to only play fast-paced, appropriate music! Create a Memory Photo Book Sites like Shutterfly make it very easy to create a photo book, and offer great deals on them, too. Make sure you take a lot of photographs throughout the year, so by the time your ready to create the photo book, you will have enough pictures. A Slideshow When you think of a slideshow you may think of the old school protector, but you can use the newest Ã¢â¬â¹tech tools to achieve a flawless presentation that the students will not forget. The iPad and Smartboard are just two great examples of how you can achieve a great presentation of your students accomplishments. There are numerous apps, such as Proshow and Slideshow Builder that will allow you to create a great presentation for your class. Have a Field Day Plan a field day to celebrate students that are moving on to the middle school. Students can participate in fun activities, such as water balloon toss, relay races, and a baseball game. Have a School Picnic A picnic is the another fun way to celebrate your students achievements. Get out the school grill and have a cook-out, invite parents to join in, and ask students to wear the special graduation t-shirts they made. Give an Award Recognize academic achievement with an award. This can be done at the graduation ceremony. Reward your students with a special ceremony and give them certificates or trophies to recognize their academic achievements. Take an End of the Year Field Trip The best way to recognize all of your students well-deserved accomplishments is to take an end of the yearÃ field trip. Some school districts have the funds for students to go as far as staying at a hotel for the night. If you are one of the those schools, you are very lucky. If you are not, then plan an end of the year field trip to a local amusement park where students can enjoy themselves. Buy a Student Gift Recognize students accomplishments with a gift. Fill a sand bucket with school supplies, bake a treat, give them a new book, or purchase a beach ball and write Hope you have a ball this summer.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Abolition Movement - Essay Example The start of the American Abolitionist Movement happened in 1831 when William Lloyd Garrison began circulating the abolitionist newspaper Liberator, which promoted the instant abolition of slavery, and the full equal rights for all African-Americans (Ottawa Citizen, 2006). After sometime, the American Abolitionist Movement disintegrated into different factions because the members and the leaders within the movement had different outlooks on the best way or best means on how to achieve their main goal. Garrison and his followers continued to uphold the abolition of slavery via moral persuasion emphasizing that slavery is not proper and immediate release of all slaves must be done (emancipation). Such methods gained support from the Baptist, Methodist and Presbyterian anti-slavery movements; and in the legislative reforms of the government (Ottawa Citizen, 2006). However, the other more fanatic factions of the movement perceived that violence was the only way to accomplish the instant abolition of slavery (Ottawa Citizen, 2006); but the steps taken to implement such tactics failed. It is the same for The American Colonization Society and the UNIA by Marcus Garvey, from 1820 Ã¢â¬â 1830, who simultaneously suggested that returning to Africa was a better option than emancipation because black people will have a hard time establishing their rights in the United States.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Quality control at Dubai metro - Term Paper Example The strategic geographical location of Dubai in the Middle East has a significant role in the economic progress of the region. It is the central commercial indicator of the entire region in respect of the mass international economic and financial activities taking place in it. What is of particular interest is how quality control can be improved by the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s management authorities. How operation management can effectively be put into play to see an improvement in overall performance of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s activities is the problem of central concernDubai Metro boasts of Arabian GulfÃ¢â¬â¢s first major urban railway project that targets to boost the efficiency of movement amid various activities in the city. It has one of the finest urban rail systems in the globe which is responsible for the mass influx of tourists and serves as the avenue of economic and financial activities. The need for quality control is paramount in this commercial hub since the commercial activities tak en up are to be standardized at international level with complete adherence to the diverse cultural concepts that constitute the visitors. Operation management of this city is under the overall authority of Dubai MunicipalityÃ¢â¬â¢s Roads and Transport Authority (RTA) who has the supervisory role in all the quality control exercise in collaboration with central government authorities.It is important to assess the various concepts that surround the strategies that are put in place by the relevant authorizes in Dubai as far as quality control is concerned.... 1960, 32). Background information Dubai is one of the fast growing metros in the world with busy commercial activities that hinges on its vast infrastructural endowment and sound management. It is important to note that management of such metro cities is critical to the overall performance of the city (The Report, 2007, 124). The large volume of international trade in tangible and intangible commodities that is executed in this city calls for thorough quality control. This city therefore requires operation management team that is able to ensure that all the necessary social and economic conditions are satisfied. DubaiÃ¢â¬â¢s operation management teams are responsible for designing and managing the various products, underlying processes, supply chain and even the services to be tendered. The team headed by the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s local authorities are in charge of overseeing acquisition of resources, their development and utilization so that various firms are able to deliver goods and ser vices to the multicultural client base that gets in and out of this United Arab Emirates city (Kachru, 2005, 636). Statement of the problem The strategic geographical location of Dubai in the Middle East has significant role in the economic progress of the region. It is the central commercial indicator of the entire region in respect of the mass international economic and financial activities taking place in it. What is of particular interest is how quality control can be improved by the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s management authorities. How operation management can effectively be put into play to see an improvement in overall performance of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s activities is the problem of central concern
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Adele Laurie Blue Essay Adele Laurie Blue Adkins was born on May 5, 1988 in North London, England. She was the only child of Penny Adkins who was just 18 at the time of her birth, and a Welsh father, Mark, who left the family when Adele was only 4 years old. Mark, who never married Penny, stayed in contact with his daughter up until her teen years, when appeared problems with alcohol. That is the reason why Adele grew close to her mom, who said her young daughter to explore, and not to stick with one thingÃ¢â¬ . Adele developed a passion for musicin her early years. Because of it her mother took Adele in the BRIT School for Performing Arts Technology, where Amy Winehouse studied. While at school, Adele made a three-track demo for a class project, which was posted on her MySpace page. When executives at XL Recordings heard the tracks, they contacted the singer and, just four months after Adele had graduated school, signed a contract. Adeles debut album, 19, hit record stores because of two singles Hometown Glory and Chasing Pavements which became very popular. She won Grammy and the Critics Choice prize at the BRIT Awards. See more: Homeless satire essay Her album 21, selling 352,000 copies by its first week. Her two singles, Rolling in the Deep and Someone Like You, became top and 19 and 21 became a top albums in the same week. Adele also broke the solo female artist record for staying at No. 1 for 11 weeks. At that year Adele won six Grammies. In this year Adele won her seventh Grammy for her hit single Set Fire to the RainÃ¢â¬ , an Academy Award and a Golden Globe Award for the song SkyfallÃ¢â¬ . Also Adele has a child. The babys father is Adeles boyfriend, Simon Konecki. She said that she wants to have three sons by the time shes 30.
Friday, November 15, 2019
O'Connor Character Traits In Flannery O'Connor's short stories, "A Good Man is Hard to Find", "Revelation", and "Greenleaf", the main character in each share similar traits. Though the grandmother, Mrs. Turpin, and Mrs. May differ from each other in many aspects, there are three notable traits that each clearly possesses. Each of these individuals is highly conscious of their own social status, is socially prejudiced, and is extremely racist. Each of the women is revealed as being highly conscious of their own social status. Not only are they aware of where they exist socially, they are quite proud of their ranking. A perfect example of this occurs in "A Good Man is Hard to Find" when the grandmother dresses herself in such a fashion that "in case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once that she was a lady." She has purposefully dressed herself in nice, classy clothing so, in the rare case of an accident, people would know that she did not die a woman from the lower class. She also pleads with the Misfit, "You wouldn't shoot a lady, would you?" when she is held hostage. This desperate plea proves ludicrous because he would have killed her even if she were poor. In "Revelation" Mrs. Turpin is extremely cognizant of her place in society. While ranking the classes of people in her head she describes, ."..and above them the home-land owners, to which she and Claud belonged." The fact t hat she actually spends her nights carefully constructing in her mind a class ranking system proves that she places a strong emphasis on her own social status. Also, her feeling of superiority toward the lower class is evident when she thinks, "Help them you must, but help them you couldn't." She fool... ...ntly to her workers, "Idiots! You could never say anything intelligent to a nigger." Mrs. May in "Greenleaf" shows her disgust toward African Americans when she asks her son, "What nice girl wants to marry a nigger-insurance man?" She is appalled that her son sells insurance to African Americans for a living and is convinced that no decent woman would ever consider marrying him with this sort of career. "A Good Man is Hard to Find", "Revelation", and "Greenleaf" depict these three characters as haughty, self-righteous females who view everyone around them to be inferior beings. Of course, the different and similar histories and experiences of their lives shaped them all. Sadly though, the sum total of all they had lived amounted to nothing more than overflowing bitterness and hatred; obviously, ignorance was in splendid supply during O'connor's writing.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
To what extent is the Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM model achievable and desirable for organisations in the modern business environment? The modern business environment For the past few hundred years the business environment has been mostly based upon turning man hours and materials into hard products (produce). What we are seeing now is a shift away from this production by mass labour, to a system whereby goods are produced by machine and the services needed to facilitate this are produced by man. Taking the UK economy as an example, the latest economic forecast by the TUC (Fig 2) shows a steady decline of manufacturing in favour of service sector jobs. This reinforces the view that the emphasis is shifting from producing goods to providing services. Ã¢â¬Å"The only advantage many companies have are the competencies and abilities of their peopleÃ¢â¬ (Dewe 2002). With firms using the same machines competitive advantage (or disadvantage) is created by the knowledge and skills of the employees. Tom Watson Jr, former President of IBM recognised the shift: Ã¢â¬Å"all the value of this company is in its people. If you burnt down all of our plants & we just kept our people & information files, we would soon be as strong as ever. Take away our people & we might never recoverÃ¢â¬ (People Management 1998:34). Knowledge therefore is power, we are moving from a physical economy to one A UK government report (Competitiveness White Paper 1999) sees this new environment as requiring Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦greater receptiveness to know-how and the ability to see its commercial potential; eagerness to keep on learning at all levels in a business; and a flair in spotting new customer needs and fresh business opportunities.Ã¢â¬ This suggests that the modern business environment is a place where knowledge is key. In his speech to the Business Link annual conference, Peter Mandelson MP Secretary of State for Trade & Industry saw the knowledge economy as Ã¢â¬Å"transforming old jobs as much as creating new, with implications for manufacturing and service industries alike.Ã¢â¬ This leads us to the idea that the modern business environment is a place where investment is required in human capital to produce this knowledge economy. In the modern business environment, with the emphasis on value of human capital, security can no longer depend on a job or organisation but upon the employees own skill and competences (Van Ruysseveldt 1995:3-4). Organisations may not be able to guarantee long term employment, but to entice workers of quality they must look to other means. Hard & Soft HRM HRM can be divided into two approaches: Ã¢â¬ËhardÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fig.3). As we see from the diagram Ã¢â¬ËhardÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM is primarily financially driven, with a fairly hard view of controlling the wages bill, workers are seen as a cost rather than as an asset to the organisation, the emphasis is on getting the best return on their money, creating efficiencies. The company position will take precedent over the collective views and concerns of employees. Such a way of managing human resources was demonstrated by Ã¢â¬ËFordismÃ¢â¬â¢ where the workers on the assembly line were under tight controls and even had to divulge personal information to be able to work for Ford (White Heat 1994). The work of Taylor (Taylorism) and the principles of scientific management were used in the late 19th century to allow factories to be managed through scientific methods rather than by Ã¢â¬Å"rule of thumb.Ã¢â¬ This idea also treated the workers as just another cog in the wheel of production and worked out the best way that the worker could operate. The modern business environment has changed greatly since the days where all workers were seen as tools to be maintained, much like machines, with regulations and tight controls. This was the hard school of HRM where peripheral workers are disposable and labour is directly productive (Beardwell & Holden 2001:98). This model can also be viewed as Ã¢â¬Ëmanaging headcount in a rational a way as for any other economic factorÃ¢â¬â¢ (Storey 1987:6). The workforce was merely a factor of production or cogs in the wheel. This Ã¢â¬ËhardÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM policy suits a workforce that is involved in a repetitive job; each process is standardised to allow tighter controls. The theory is that the firm should maximise human efficiency in the same way as any other resource. This was made a success by businessmen like Henry Ford in the days of mass industrialisation. However, with the advent of high technology machinery much of the repetitive work is now done by robot leaving only jobs for skilled maintainers and operatives, not leaving much scope for hard HRM practices to survive. McDonaldisation has built upon the ideas of scientific management and the successes of men like Ford. Each part of the process of bringing the food to the customer has been scientifically scrutinised and adjusted to make it more efficient. As a result of this approach, they have a controlled workforce and a set of strict rules and procedures that ensure the workforce is working exactly as the employers wish them to. McDonalds have recognised that there is still a place for the unskilled worker, as machines cannot be relied upon to do all the jobs. In this instance there is still a place for the hard school of HRM. Ã¢â¬ËSoftÃ¢â¬â¢HRM (fig 3) revolves around the development of employees. Employees are viewed as assets to the company, rather than as purely another cost of production. This requires the management to regard the workforce as partners in the work process and nurture them to maximise their output. Heery and Noon (2001) suggests soft HRM is an approach recognising the need to treat employees as assets that must be looked after. A soft HRM policy would therefore place the emphasis on training and development in order to get the best out of the workforce as opposed to tight controls (Beardwell & Holden 2001:98). Therefore, a policy of Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM seeks to increase production by Ã¢â¬Ëcommunication, motivation and leadershipÃ¢â¬â¢ (Storey 1987:6). Becker (1992 Nobel prize winner for economics) suggests that expenditures on education, training and medical care could all be considered as investments in human capital. Ã¢â¬Å"They are called human capital, because people cannot be separated from their knowledge, skills, health or values in the way they can be separated from their financial and physical assetsÃ¢â¬ (Donkin 2002) If employees have an inherent capital value for their knowledge and skills, it would be reasonable to assume that an organisation can improve its competitive-edge through the excellence of its people (SHL group 2002). The work of Maslows goes some way to explaining the reasons why humans need this development and training. Maslow suggests that individuals have a hierarchy of needs (fig 1). Fig 1 outlines Maslows theory that human nature drives individuals to satisfy Ã¢â¬ËinstinctualÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. The theory suggests that once an individual has achieved one set of needs they are no longer motivated to seek this (as they already have it) and will continue to want more thus rising up the hierarchy. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory would seem to suggest that a firm must ensure that employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are continually met not only the safety and physiological aspects (the legal requirements of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s contract) to increasing employee productivity. If a firm has to continue to meet ever increasing needs to motivate staff then this theory would be a good explanation of why firms use Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM. Types of Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ initiatives * Flexible working, working from home or allowing workers the choice of hours outside a core time of 10:00-15:00 for example. * Job Sharing, by allowing employees to become multi skilled (training) they can operate in a variety of roles thus making their job appear more interesting but also allowing a backup if an employee were to be off work at any time. * Parental leave, with the increased pressures on family life many firms now offer special breaks for staff with children, from allowing days off for hospital appointments to paid paternity leave. * Performance related pay; this could be seen as a hard or soft perspective dependant upon viewpoint. If a system of bonuses exists for good work this would be a soft measure. If (Ã¢â¬ËteleÃ¢â¬â¢ sales) you only get paid if you hit certain targets, this would be a hard measure. The primary argument in favour of PRP is that it acts as a motivator, through both providing incentives in the form of monetary rewards and by recognising achievements. Further benefits cited include the fact that individuals can identify closely with their employersÃ¢â¬â¢ goals and that this can increase productivity and encourage quality, flexibility and teamwork (Armstrong and Murlis, 1991). As we can see from the above examples Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM is much more difficult to quantify than hard HRM. It is more an overall approach to staff welfare and development than a clear set of rules and procedures. What makes it so difficult to quantify is that two firms may claim to be operating the above Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM policies but in practise they maybe very different systems. For example, the concept of flexible working can be interpreted as allowing employees freedom to choose to work from home or the office, or the firm may use the system of core hours (as above). These are two very different systems but both however come under the heading of flexible working. To decide which method a particular firm is using will require a broad look at the pay and conditions and the freedom employees enjoy. It is also useful to note that it is seldom a case of an employer operating one form of HRM, it is necessary for firms to allow their workers some freedom but at the same time retain control. A good example of this is Microsoft; they operate a seemingly soft policy on HRM with a whole range of employee benefits and training programmes (24hr nurse line, free entry to local events and professional development programmes). However, to retain the knowledge and skills that they develop the firm insists that if an employee is to leave the company they must not work in the computer industry for a period of 6 months. This shows that the organisation is willing to invest time and money to maintain a highly trained workforce but at the same time keeps a tight control on them. Why is Ã¢â¬ËSoftÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM Desirable? To examine the reasons why a firm should adopt policies of soft HRM we must look at the dangers of not doing this. A recent CIPD survey (CIPD 10/2001) has outlined the costs of organisations for not retaining and motivating staff. The survey has shown that one in four employees left their organisation in 1999 (the highest figure since the survey was created in 1995). What was even more alarming was the cost of replacing these lost staff. The average price for replacing a management level employee was Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½6086 which was an increase of 28 percent on 1999 the highest cost was to replace a professional services employee which was Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½8316. The danger for organisations is how this turnover effects company performance, two thirds of organisations believe this to have a negative effect with 13 percent claiming that it has a serious negative effect. The CIPDs findings suggest that staff feel freer to leave an organisation when they know they can acquire employment elsewhere. In a labour market of low unemployment it seems that firms must make themselves more attractive to their employees. RebusHR, a firm that deals with outsourced HR issues for a range of companies sees soft HRM as Ã¢â¬Å"a good way of retaining and attracting the best staffÃ¢â¬ ¦giving people choice and a feel-good factorÃ¢â¬ ¦it shows that youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in them and listen to what they sayÃ¢â¬ (Shepherd K 2002). In the article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Profitable personnelÃ¢â¬ (People management 1998:28-31) West and Patterson suggest that good employee relations are directly inked to increased performance. In their survey the Ã¢â¬ËSheffield effectiveness programmeÃ¢â¬â¢ they found that people management Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦is not only critical to business performance: it also far outstrips emphasis on quality, technology, competitive strategy or research and development in its influence on the bottom line.Ã¢â¬â¢ The survey looked at a firm called Zotefoams, which operated an Ã¢â¬ËenlightenedÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM policy. Workers on the shop floor operated in teams and were multi-skilled; they also had a certain level of responsibility for dealing with work priorities and quality problems. The aim was to create a multi-skilled and motivated workforce with more responsibility at the lower levels freeing up management for other tasks. With the management freed up for other duties this allowed the firm to be that much more flexible. Out of the 100 firms surveyed, Zotefoams enjoyed the highest profits and productivity over the seven-year period of the survey. In the final paragraph of the article, West and Patterson sum up their conclusions Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦ those in which the managers have eagerly addressed these challenges [developing skills and ownership] that have experienced rapid improvements in financial performance.Ã¢â¬â¢ The findings in the Ã¢â¬ËSheffield effectiveness programmeÃ¢â¬â¢ are backed up by a study by the Sunday Times (100 Best Companies to Work for 2002) in which 21,000 people were studied over a period of months from the bottom end of the corporate ladder. In an article within this publication, Milton Moskowitz and Robert Levering suggest that Ã¢â¬ËBeing a generous employer is not just good public relations Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s also good for business, especially when times are hard.Ã¢â¬â¢ This viewpoint makes sense if we take into consideration the negative effect of labour turnover on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and the high cost of recruitment. Entering into Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ practices in human resource management should save the organisation in the long term. The Human Capital Index, developed by the consultancy Watson Wyatt (Overell 2002) is based upon data of HR policies and practices gathered from 600 companies. This data is correlated against financial information. The firm believes it has identified how HR policies are effective predictors of value Ã¢â¬â and which policies bring most value to the organisation. Organisations with Ã¢â¬Å"the bestÃ¢â¬ HR practices deliver twice as much value to shareholders as their average competitors (Overell 2002). Is soft HRM achievable? According to RebusHR (a large human resources organisation which handles HRM issues for clients such as DaimlerChryslerUK) the biggest barrier to the concept of soft HRM practices is the administrative burden of co-ordinating the information (Shepherd K 2002). This stems from the problem that Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM is intangible, whilst it is possible to relate high staff turnover to lack of Ã¢â¬ËenlightenedÃ¢â¬â¢ HRM policies, it is not possible to directly quantify the benefits derived from the existence of Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ policies. This leads organisations to see the cost and extra burden placed upon the HR department with an introduction of a soft HR policy, but it is difficult for this to be weighed up against the benefits on paper. In the IPD survey Ã¢â¬Å"Benefiting from a balanced lifeÃ¢â¬ (July/Aug 1999) of the firms questioned many were operating soft policies with 75% offering paternity leave and 57% offering parents special dispensation for time off to look after their children. Popular also were job sharing schemes (57%) and flexi-time systems (47%). From this survey we can see evidence that firms are operating soft HRM policies, what is unclear from the research is to what extent these policies affect the bottom line. The impact of soft HRM is intangible which means it leads us to the problem of quantifying any real benefits. The whole concept of soft HRM appears to be to retain and motivate staff, in the TUC economic forecast we see a high level of employee turnover in the services sector (hotels, restaurants) show the highest levels of employee turnover, but is this as a result of hard HRM practises? true turnover costs are more complex than simply figuring out the average cost of replacement. The costs of losing a good performer are greater than the costs of losing an average performer. The true cost of losing a key seasoned player is hard to estimate. There is the investment in development of the employee, the value of the knowledge and experience gained, and the lost productivity that also have to be considered to arrive at a true cost figure. In the case of McDonalds we see a split between management staff and shop floor workers. Whilst the management have many flexible benefits (PRP, bonus, life/health insurance etc) the workers on the shop floor do not (McDonalds 2002). They are regarded as cogs in the wheel and are treated fairly but firmly as in the hard school of HRM. As a consequence of this, shop floor turnover is higher than that of the management. However, is this higher turnover a result of the HRM policy? Or is it a nature of the type of work? What I would suggest is that the sort of work involved with working on the shop floor of McDonalds is not conducive to a long career in that position. The result of this would be the high staff turnover for low skilled repetitive jobs. The dilemma facing HRM managers is that they need low skilled workers to provide the services such as discussed and to operate soft HRM policies such as training would move these workers away from where they were needed. We therefore cannot have it both ways there must be a balance between employee development and retaining quality people for their positions. If soft HRM seeks to address the retention and motivation of staff we must not lose sight of the fact that we do still need low skilled workers. Soft HRM assumes the existence of a knowledge society (Livingston 2001), the emphasis is on the human resources manager the harness the knowledge. Knowledge work is typically considered to be about variety and exception rather than routine. It is generally considered to be performed by professional workers with high levels of skill and expertise. Livingstone makes the point that the potential for waste of this knowledge through bad management is Ã¢â¬Ëimmense and gut wrenching.Ã¢â¬â¢ This claim is given substance by Thompson. In his research only 14 percent of employees received any training at all and that almost half of that lasted for less than a week (figures referring to the UK 2001). For HRM to work effectively we must reorganize work to firstly make the most of existing knowledge and human capital but also to develop this human capital to maximise future performance. In this modern business environment knowledge takes the leading place from other drivers of economic change such as labour, technology and markets. The dilemma we face with soft HRM is that (as explained above in the McDonalds example) a lot of routine work is done by workers with minimal training and knowledge and only small numbers of highly skilled employees are required. Thompson pointed out that if employment growth is not dominated by knowledge work itÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be dominated by something else. There are strong and clear indications that it is dominated by low skill, routine work largely in the service sector. We canÃ¢â¬â¢t make every job high skill, high wage, and high learning because there are jobs that neither the employee nor employer can grow. One of the reasons they canÃ¢â¬â¢t be grown is because, in our other guise as consumers, a lot of us want the cheapest possible flights, goods, services and so on. We canÃ¢â¬â¢t have it both ways. If we want cheap, controllable, efficient service, weÃ¢â¬â¢re not going to create a lot of high wage, high skill, high learning jobs. There are many dilemmas associated with the ideas of hard and soft HRM. We must realise that we cannot expand the knowledge and skills of all members of society infinitely. There will always be a place for the unskilled worker and as such there must be a place for hard HRM. However, in todays changing environment soft measures must come to the fore. The notion of Ã¢â¬Ëthe velvet glove concealing the iron fist of hard HRMÃ¢â¬â¢ (Beardwell & Holden 2001:93) shows that even soft measures are still measures of control. No matter how soft a companies HRM policies appear to be, they will still be designed for the benefit of the organisation rather than of the individual. The bottom line must always come first. Figures and tables Fig 1 Fig 2 : TUC (2002) Fig 3: Cornelius et al 2002 Ã Bibliography ACAS, found at http://www.acas.org.uk/ [accessed 10/11/02] Armstrong, M and H Murlis, 1991 & 1994. Reward Management Ã¢â¬â A Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice Second & Third edition. London: Kogan Page ltd. Beardwell & Holden, Human Resource Management, A contemporary Perspective, 2nd Edition, 1997 Beardwell & Holden, Human Resource Management, A contemporary Perspective, 3rd Edition, 2001 Becker, G, cited in Donkin R, 30/10/2002 Ã¢â¬â Employees as investors Ã¢â¬â FT 30/10/02 Bexhill College, http://intranet.bexhillcolledge.ac.uk [Accessed 18/10/02] CIPD, Labour turnover survey, October 2001 found at: http://www.cipd.co.uk [accessed 30/10/02] Cornelius N, Gagnon S, Found at: http://www.thomsonlearning.co.uk/businessandmanagement/ cornelius2/intro.pdf [Accessed 13/11/02] Derek Duffy, TMS Institute, http://www.tms.com.au/forum/dcforumid5/59.html#1 [Accessed 18/10/02] Dewe, P, cited in Overell, S, 30/10/2002 Ã¢â¬â The metric system for performance Ã¢â¬â FT 30/10/02 Heery, E. and Noon, M. (2001) A Dictionary of Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press IPD, Benefiting from a balanced life, July/Aug 1999http://www.cipd.co.uk [accessed 30/10/02] Livingston, D. (1999). The Education-jobs gap: Underemployment and economic democracy. Toronto, ON: Garamond Press. Livingston, D. (2001). Worker control as the missing link: Relations between paid/unpaid work and work-related learning. In Second International Conference on Researching Work and Learning Conference Proceedings. Calgary, AB: University of Calgary Faculty of Continuing Education. Mandelson P, Business Link annual conference Ã¢â¬â 7 October 1999. Microsoft Website, http://www.microsoft.com [Accessed 19/10/02] Overell, S, 30/10/2002 Ã¢â¬â The metric system for performance Ã¢â¬â FT 30/10/02 People Management, 8 January 1998 Peoplesoft, Available from Financial Times 31/10/02 Sennett, R. (1998). The corrosion of character: The personal consequences of work in the new capitalism. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. Shepherd, K, cited in Murray S, 30/10/2002 Ã¢â¬â Marrying Performance with Reward Ã¢â¬â FT 30/10/02 SHL group, Available from: http://www.shlgroup.com/cases/philips.htm [Accessed 31/10/02] Storey J, 1987, Developments in the mangenment of human resources: an interim report, Warwick papers in industrial relations, Vol 17 Storey J, 1989, New perspectives on Human Resource Management Sunday Times, 100 Best Companies to Work for 2002, 24th March 2002. Thompson, 2002, Available from: http://www.ucalgary.ca/cted/confer2001/pres_summary.html [Accessed 31/10/02] TUC Economic Forecast, 2002, http://www.tuc.org.uk/economy/tuc-4028-f0.cfm UK Government White Paper , Competitiveness White Paper, Our Competitive Future; building the knowledge driven economy 1999 Van Ruysseveldt et al, 1995, Comparative Industrial and Employment Relations Watson T, cited in Mayo A, 1998 Ã¢â¬â Memory Bankers Ã¢â¬â People Management 22(1) 34-38 Welton MR, 2002, Available from: http://www.ucalgary.ca/cted/confer2001/pres_summary.html [Accessed 31/10/02] White Heat 5, Video recording, Beat of the System, London BBC, 1994
Sunday, November 10, 2019
and the Social Media by Tanya Senkovska 11114117 Stella Valcheva 11114120 Teodora Gocheva 11114125 1 CONTENTS Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 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Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦20 2 INTRODUCTION Aim of our project: The main purpose of our project is to define the social media impact on our product.We explore the principal concepts and and tools of successful marketing strategy, from market segmentation and product positiong to designing of distribution channels and communications strategy . To thrive in a highly competitive marketplace, companies must develop marketing plans that align them with their customers and differentiate them from their competitors. Without integrated and innovative strategies, corporate leaders will struggle to create value and generate growth. The reason for choosing NesCafe as a discussing brand is because of the wide range of activities in which the company is involved.Their huge campaigns, reflected in all kinds of social media, are an attempt to create a global brand positioning for NescafeÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio of coffee brands that explored how the catalytic nature of coffee made the world a more interesting and richer place. The opportunity of interacting among pople gives the customer a fresh insight about the competitive advantage and potential of the unique goods and services your organization offers. 3 THEORY Marketing concepts MARKETING ENVIRONMENT Every company operates under particular conditions that influence its ability to ser ve customers.The microenvironment consists of actors close to the company, such as suppliers, intermediaries Ã¢â¬â combining efforts to create value; competitors Ã¢â¬â trying to serve customers better; publics may have impact on firm`s performance; customers Ã¢â¬â the most important. The macroenvironment includes larger forces that affect the whole internal environment. Those are beyond the control of a single company and thus they shape the opportunities and threats for the business Ã¢â¬â demographic, political, economic, cultural, societal, technological.STP ANALYSIS The strategic marketing planning process flows from a mission and vision statement to the selection of target markets, and the formulation of specific marketing mix and positioning objective for each product or service the organization will offer. The marketing logic followed should present the organization as a value creation and delivery sequence, resulting in profitable customer relationship. In its fir st phase, choosing the value, the strategist Ã¢â¬Å"proceeds to segment the market, select the appropriate market target, and develop the offer's value positioning.The formula Ã¢â¬â segmentation, targeting, positioning (STP) -is the essence of strategic marketing. Ã¢â¬ (Kotler, 1994, p. 93). SEGMENTATION Market segmentation consists of the partition of the market to distinct groups with different needs and wants with the purpose of selecting one or more market segments which the organization can target through the development of specific marketing mixes that adapt to particular market needs. TARGETING From the determined market segments a company chooses a target market Ã¢â¬â group of customers that the business has decided to aim its marketing efforts at.It is the one for which the firm could create maximum customer value. POSITIONING Positioning of the product is determining the place it takes in consumers` minds. Efforts are put to differentiate the product from competit ors` products, so that it could be accepted as unique. 4 MARKETING MIX Thus the overall marketing strategy is outlined. The next step is to choose the most appropriate marketing mix Ã¢â¬â the 4Ps that will bring the company the best response to its wants.Product Ã¢â¬â the portfolio of goods-and-services the company offers to the target market Price Ã¢â¬â amount of money to be paid, adjusted to the current competitive and economic situation, in line with buyer`s perceptions of the product`s value. Place Ã¢â¬â all the activities that make the product available to target consumers, including intermediaries, distributors, sellers. Promotion Ã¢â¬â all the activities that present the unique characteristics of the product and persuade the customer to buy it. SWOT ANALYSIS The SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for understanding and decision-making for all sorts of situations in business and organizations.SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Thr eats. SWOT analysis headings provide a good framework for reviewing strategy, position and direction of a company or business proposition. Use SWOT analysis for business planning, strategic planning, competitor evaluation, marketing, business and product development and research SOCIAL MEDIA Social media are forms of electronic communication (as Web sites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content.Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as Ã¢â¬Å"a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2. 0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. Furthermore, social media depend on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create , discuss, and modify user-generated content. It introduces substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities and individual.Classification By applying a set of theories in the field of media research (social presence, media richness) and social processes (self-presentation, self-disclosure) Kaplan and Haenlein created a classification scheme in their Business Horizons (2010) article, with six different types of social media: 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? collaborative projects (for example, Wikipedia), blogs and microblogs (for example, Twitter), content communities (for example, YouTube and DailyMotion), social networking sites (for example, Facebook), virtual game worlds (e. g. , World of Warcraft), and virtual social worlds (e. g. Second Life)Technologies include: blogs, picture-sharing, vlogs, wall-postings, email, instant messaging, music-sharing, crowdsourcing and voice over IP,to name a few. Social media in business There is an increasing trend towards using social media monitoring tools that allow marketers to search, track and analyse conversation on the web about their brand or about topics of interest. This can be useful in business management and campaign tracking, allowing the user to measure return on investment, competitor-auditing and general public engagement. There are valuable types of information that show the engagement needs of the social media audience.For instance, LinkedIn users are thought to care mostly about identity, reputation and relationships, whereas YouTubeÃ¢â¬â¢s primary features are sharing, conversations, groups and reputation. Many companies build their own social containers that attempt to collect more concrete information for their brands. On the other hand social media containers such as Google+ or Facebook and also Twitter could provide a business with unbiased, realistic, honest opinions and attitudes, as they are not specially stated for marketing purposes, but for friends or just self-expression.Company faces significant challenges in dealing with viral negative s entiment directed at organizations or individuals on social media platforms, which may be a reaction to an announcement or event.  SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING Social media marketing refers to the process of gaining website traffic or attention through social media sites. Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share it with their social networks.A corporate message spreads from user to user and presumably resonates because it appears to come from a trusted, third-party source, as opposed to the brand or company itself. Hence, this form of marketing is driven by word-of-mouth, meaning it results in earned media rather than paid media. Social media has become a platform that is easily accessible to anyone with internet access. Increased communication for organizations fosters brand awareness and often, improved customer service. Additionally, social media serves as a relatively inexpensive platform fo r organizations to implement marketing campaigns. Social networking websites allow individuals to interact with one another and build relationships. When products or companies join those sites, people can interact with the product or company. That interaction feels personal to users because of their previous experiences with social networking site interactions. Social networking sites and blogs allow individual followers to Ã¢â¬Å"retweetÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"repostÃ¢â¬ comments made by the product being promoted. By repeating the message, all of the users connections are able to see the message, therefore reaching more people.Social networking sites act as word of mouth. Because the information about the product is being put out there and is getting repeated, more traffic is brought to the product/company. Through social networking sites, products/companies can have conversations and interactions with individual followers. This personal interaction can instill a feeling of loyalty i nto followers and potential customers. Also, by choosing whom to follow on these sites, products can reach a very narrow target audience.Social networking sites also include a vast amount of information about what products and services prospective clients might be interested in Ã¢â¬â marketers detect buying signals, such as content shared by people and questions posted online. Understanding of buying signals can help sales people target relevant prospects and marketers run micro-targeted campaigns. In the context of the social web, engagement means that customers and stakeholders are participants rather than viewers. Social media in business allows anyone and everyone to express and share an opinion or an idea somewhere along the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s path to market.Each participating customer becomes part of the marketing department, as other customers read their comments or reviews. The engagement process is then fundamental to successful social media marketing. NESCAFE HISTORY Nes cafe is a brand of instant coffee made by Nestle. It comes in many different product forms. The name is a portmanteau of the words Ã¢â¬Å"NestleÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"cafeÃ¢â¬ . It was in 1930 that the Brazilian government first approached Nestle to find a way of making a quality cup of coffee simply by adding water, whilst retaining the coffeeÃ¢â¬â¢s natural flavour. Sounds simple, right? Wrong.It took seven years of research to perfect. Yes, seven years of blood, sweat and tears went into the first cup of NESCAFE (not literally though). And so, in the spring of 1938, NESCAFE was first launched in Switzerland. The rest of the orld soon followed. 7 Understandably, the Second World War hindered NESCAFEÃ¢â¬â¢s progress. But all was not lost. In fact, the American forces played a key role in re-launching NESCAFE in Europe when it was included in their food rations. By the 1950s, coffee had become cool. And everywhere you went you wanted to find your favorite blend. So, NESCAFE fans g rew in abundance.NESCAFE continued working to perfect great tasting coffee and in 1965, introduced the first freeze-dried soluble offering Ã¢â¬â Gold Blend. And just a few years later, we invented a new technology to capture more aromas and flavors from every single coffee bean. Then in 1994, we created the Ã¢â¬Ëfull aroma' process, making the unique quality and character of NESCAFE even more distinctive. Since then, NESCAFE has remained firmly at the forefront of sustainable coffee farming and product innovations worldwide. With the continual introduction of new blends, we aim to satisfy coffee lovers just like you.PORTFOLIO Nescafe`s products are divided into two main categories: Coffee Products and Coffee Machines. Each product is separately introduced by its own characteristics and each is distinguished by its purpose and most appropriate usage. Nescafe Classic Ã¢â¬â Rich and full flavored. Nescafe 3in1 Ã¢â¬â Sweet and Creamy. Nescafe Gold Blend Ã¢â¬â Smooth taste, rich aroma. Nescafe Green Blend Ã¢â¬â Roasted and unroasted coffee beans. Nescafe Cappuccino Ã¢â¬â Light and frothy. The full list of products is different for the each of the countries, in which they are offered, as suggested by Nescafe`s main global strategy Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"think globally, act locallyÃ¢â¬ .The Coffee Machines DOLCE GUSTO are new addition to the company`s portfolio. They have become popular and successful products ever since their introduction, mainly due to professional advertisement. 8 MISSION STATEMENT Nescafe is part of the giant Nestle, so it adopts the mission of the whole corporation, namely: Ã¢â¬Å"Good Food, Good LifeÃ¢â¬ However Nescafe products play vital role due to its high performance in finance. The goal is to make Nescafe consumers` prefer choice throughout by giving them best experiences with new tastes of Nescafe products.To bring NESCAFE to people around the globe, providing a Ã¢â¬Å"1 NOW 1 NESCAFEÃ¢â¬ to satisfy every aspect of n eeds. General Objective: The objective is to be the leader in Nutrition, Health and Wellness, and the industry reference for financial performance, trusted by all stakeholders. COMPANY`S STRATEGY Ã¢â¬Å"We are seeking to achieve leadership and earn that trust by satisfying the expectations of consumers, whose daily choices drive our performance, of shareholders, of the communities in which we operate and of society as a whole.We believe that it is only possible to create long- term sustainable value for our shareholders if our behaviour, strategies and operations are also creating value for the communities where we operate, for our business partners and, of course, for our consumers. We call this Ã¢â¬Å"Creating Shared Value. Ã¢â¬ NESCAFE`S MARKETING Analysis Marketing Environment Microenvironment Nescafe helps and supports the agriculture/producers of coffee beans, thus creates close relationship with its suppliers. Uses various types of advertising, promotions, research tools, social media and websites to maintain relationship with its customers as well.One of the most successful are the games, which take place periodically all around the world. In order to please the public Nescafe encorporates a lot of social responsibility actions, environmental friendly practices and values highly the quality of its products. 9 There are also other brands that offer instant coffee, but at least in Europe Nescafe is far ahead its competitors. While in America it lags behind Maxwell House Ã¢â¬â the instant coffee of Kraft Foods. Macroenvironment The macroenvironment of Nescafe can not be generally determined as it is different in the different countries.However Nescafe successfully copes with this situation adopting the flexible strategy Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"think globally, act locallyÃ¢â¬ . STP ANALYSIS SEGMENTATION AND TARGET GROUPS Nescafe uses mainly age segmentation and targets mainly young people with very active lifestyle, who might need additional energy or who do not have time to prepare coffee. 1. Working Adults (Primary) 2. Students-University, Academy, High School (Secondary) 3. Senior Citizens (Third party) Geographical segmentation is also part of the Nescafe global strategy.They alter it according to geographical and cultural particularities of the region. Here are some other factors Nescafe uses to segment the market and target its customers more efficiently: Young adult cafe culture segment: They target this segment with their new latte range, along with the advertising, sales promotion and the competition to win the lounge seen in the advertisements. Upscale, quality driven, higher income consumers: Their Nescafe Gold range and exotic tastes such as Alta Rice are aimed towards such consumers, where the price and quality are higher than that of the general blends.Middle-class consumer (no age target): Nescafe targets such a large segment with their Blend 43, Mild Roast and Espresso products. The consumer gets an economical benefit , as well as a quality product. POSITIONING Most of the campaigns call on Ã¢â¬Å"wake upÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"wake up 5minutes earlierÃ¢â¬ , so it tries to occupy its customers` first thoughts in the morning. Another part of the campaign aiming at teenagers and the youth stresses on the Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ appearance with a cup of Nescafe (for example the Ã¢â¬Å"unexpectedly good combination 3 in 1Ã¢â¬ ad in Bulgaria).The brand also wants its customers to think of Nescafe whenever they feel tired or with lower level of energy, e. g. at the end of the work day or after sports activities. In all the presentations of the brand the cup of coffee is shared by colleagues, friend, couples, so that it could be accepted as symbol of shared happiness. A lot of efforts are put in order to be accepted as healthy products of high quality. 10 MARKETING MIX Product Ã¢â¬â Nescafe is the worldÃ¢â¬Ës leading brand of coffee. Its portfolio holds variety of Coffee Products, different for each targ et group.Promotion Ã¢â¬â Promotion is playing very important role in boosting up the product image and creating demand. Nescafe is heavily promoted and that Elements: Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion, Publicity. As one of the largest companies in the world, Nestle is able to launch extensive advertising campaigns around the world. Place Ã¢â¬âThe company fucuses on placing its product at different markets. Available to all retailer stores, cafes, restaurants, now even vending machines. Price Ã¢â¬â it offers quality products at a reasonable price.It uses a premium pricing strategy to signal its quality and strong brand attributes. SWOT Strengths ? Broad geographic coverage ? Global leader in instant coffee ? World number one in other hot drinks ? Strong brand portfolio ? High levels of research and development expenditure ? Solid financial base ? Capacity to pass on costs Weaknesses ? Reliance on mass market ? Limited presence in tea ? Increasing bias towards lo w-margin products ? Bias towards caffeine-based products ? Negative ethical image Opportunities ? Strong growth forecast in Asia-Pacific ? The premium trend ?The health trend ? Ethical consumerism ? Cross-branding Threats ? Sluggish prospects in developed markets ? Coffee machine competition ? Rising costs ? Competition from beyond hot drinks 11 ADVERTISING Nescafe employs a Ã¢â¬Å"think globally, act locallyÃ¢â¬ marketing strategy. According to Keegan and Green, Ã¢â¬Å"Nescafe Coffee is marketed as a global brand, even though advertising messages and product formulation vary to suit cultural differencesÃ¢â¬ . NescafeÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing campaign is global in the sense that the company uses the same symbols worldwide, such as the renowned coffee mug and Nescafe logo.However, Nescafe tailors its campaigns to suit diverse consumer attitudes and preferences. For example, marketing advertisements targeting different locations and regions often are different in terms of copy (messag e and language) and advertising appeal (rational vs. emotional). For the emotional appeals, Nescafe is trying to tug at the heartstrings of coffee drinkers. The emotional appeals are similar in that Nescafe wants to be a part of their consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s day. For the most part these advertisements do make sense when compared to the cultural factors of each specific country.In different countries the Company uses diverse methods for advertisement and appeal to customers. For example comparison between Germany, USA and Argentina was made according to which in Argentina the ad has an emotional appeal rather than rational; it seeks to associate drinking a Nescafe with having a pleasant day that coincides with your pleasurable coffee? drinking experience. As Germans place great emphasis on structure and routine, NescafeÃ¢â¬â¢s placement of the product as being used during a specific moment during the day (the Ã¢â¬Å"breakÃ¢â¬ ) makes sense.Germans are typically busy people; therefore p ositioning the product as a respite from the hectic daily schedule is well done; even the simplicity of the ad adds to the feeling of tranquility and getting away from the rigors of every? day life. Nescafe is promoting the visual of the individual packet in order to appeal to the typical highly individualistic American, as in this package is made Ã¢â¬Å"just for youÃ¢â¬ . Geared towards people that are on? the? go, the ad appeals to the American that is constantly moving and views time as indispensable and finite.Nescafe is trying to reverse the notion that Ã¢â¬Å"you get what you pay forÃ¢â¬ by offering the same level of quality for a lower price. Despite these strategies implemented in different countries, there are some aspects that are not especially relevant and we have recommended some changes. Nescafe is seeking to convince consumers, especially young ones, to see instant coffee as a 100% natural product. To do this, Nestle shot the ad in Brazil Ã¢â¬â the country tha t in 1930 challenged it to develop coffee that could be made by just adding water. Nescafe instant coffee was invented in 1938.According to the company, the plan is to Ã¢â¬Å"reconnect consumers with the journey from the plant to jarÃ¢â¬ and focus on the origins of its coffee. When brands and their creative agencies agree, in full or in part, about the breadth of the cultural influence and the social value of music, they need to make a long-term commitment to developing a Ã¢â¬Å"music strategyÃ¢â¬ . Nescafe is a great example for this, because most of their advertisements include music. In this way they connect on an emotional level ,which is central to consumer engagement and music offers a multitude of paths to accomplish this. 2 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The Nescafe Plan: Creating Shared Value Ã¢â¬Å"Responsibility Goes Beyond the CupÃ¢â¬ Paul Bulcke, Neslte CEO states the ambition: Ã¢â¬Å"Nescafe gives its name to this global initiative, which creates value across the coffee supply chain, from farmers, to consumers, to us. Ã¢â¬ Nescafe works hardly on its image Ã¢â¬â a really responsible brand, caring of the future generations, believing in the benefits arising from sustainable development. It emphasizes on the Nescafe Plan, which is Ã¢â¬Å"a global initiative that supports responsible farming, production and consumption. To win customers` and shareholders` loyalty the brand takes some actions: ? ? ? ? NESCAFE works with partners to support farmers NESCAFE is working to reduce its impact on the environment. NESCAFE promotes environmental responsibility, creates shared value for the people whose lives they influence NESCAFE makes it personal and acts as promoter of preserving the environment: Ã¢â¬Å"how you can help to reduce your enviromental impact? Ã¢â¬ In addition Nescafe pays much attention on valuable concepts as Ã¢â¬Å"healthÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"qualityÃ¢â¬ , instead of relying on lower prices.Thus it completes the position of the products as environmentally friendly produced, with high nutrition characteristics and suitable for healthy lifestyle. Moreover its customers believe that they contribute to huge, positive, social impact Ã¢â¬â grounds for lasting, loyalty and close relationship. NESCAFE AND THE SOCIAL MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA TIPS AND RULES Is social media important ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 billion people on facebook Social media has become the #1 activity on the web 53 % of people on twitter recommend products in their tweets 90 % of consumers trust peer recommendations Only 14 % trust ads 13 Facebook Ã¢â¬âa few key things ? ? ? ? ?Best social media platform to drive a purchasing action Not a medium to push business spam Use it to meet,build audience and brand Slow build before you invite the masses 90 % of those who Ã¢â¬Å"like your page will never return to it. Engagement ,not likes , is the key General tips to gain more attention to your page on Facebook ? ? ? ? ? Figure out what your expertise is and how that relates to your product Always treat it like a conversation Have an incentive to join, return and participate Try new things, new topics , new wording , new times A little bit of planning goes a long way Different ways to Build your following ? ? ? ? ? In person Contests Paid advertising Other social media networks Mutual benefit community Through existing members (engagement) Drive engagement Ã¢â¬âask your audience simple questions to start a conversation and drive engagement Ã¢â¬âyes/no ;true or false ; select your favourite ;opinion . another way is through photos (relation to your product, branding without a hard sell , memes and quotes ) Things to limit that can negatively affect the image of your company ? ? ? ? ? Linking accounts Pushing out information Posting once a month/5 times a day Asking people to follow you just to increase your numbers Text heavy posts-keep it short,informative 4 NESCAFE`S FACEBOOK PROFILE Nescafe Bulgaria maintains very active Faceboo k page, with the impressive numbers: 6 417 020 likes & 73 634 talking about this. Globally there are a number of facebook pages divided geographically (for certain country) and for the different products or for different events and campaigns that Nescafe supports. Generally in each man can find: ? ? Basic information could be found on each of the profiles as well as more detailed for the specific one. Many of the profiles hold memorable phrases or mission statements. Ã¢â¬Å"To wake you up and fill you with energy for the upcoming challenges of every ay! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We are combining pleasure and health benefitsÃ¢â¬ ? A fan can also find Nescafe`s history along with some interesting facts about the brand. Ã¢â¬Å"The boom of instant coffee was during the World War II. Nescafe was very convenient form of coffee and inseparable part of soldiers` nutrition. Strangely this is the time when it becomes popular in Europe and later on globally. Ã¢â¬ ? ? Portfolio of Nescafe products U ploaded videos Ã¢â¬â mainly ads and funny animations, just to entertain the viewer The whole social media promotes it as THE FAVOURITE coffee/ soft drink/hot drink.The campaigns involve the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"shared happinessÃ¢â¬ showing Nescafe in the company of people who love each other Ã¢â¬â family, friends, couples. To engage fans` attention Nescafe organizes a lot of games, which are promoted through facebook. The Ã¢â¬Å"Coffee Cup 3in1Ã¢â¬ SMS game in Bulgaria was very successful in 2012 and from the social network people find out that the same will start again on the 22th of April 2013 too. Another recent one was Ã¢â¬Å"Inspiring momentsÃ¢â¬ , it has already finished and there is post with photo of the winner and his award Ã¢â¬â an excursion to Austria.Nescafe uses Facebook to increase the Engagement as its posts are not simply informative, but in the form of questions or easy riddles. It seeks opinions and responses. Just a Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ is not enough, it wants people to talk about the products, to increase popularity and Word-ofMouth effect. For this purpose it offers variable opportunities: to create NesChristmas cards; NesWishes cards; to draw NesLucks. 15 Of course it publishes information for big events Ã¢â¬â the one Nescafe is sponsor of or significant for the brand itself. The last one is Nescafe`s 75th Birthday.It prompted Facebook fans to post wishes by special application. In addition it posted some photos of its promotion campaign in the center of Sofia, where they give to passers-by free cup of 3in1 coffee. The slogan was Ã¢â¬Å"75 years creating memorable momentsÃ¢â¬ . In Bulgaria Nescafe is strong supporter of an innovative type of music Ã¢â¬â the beatbox. The company has organized annual beatbox championship with award: Ã¢â¬Å"The Best Beatboxer in BulgariaÃ¢â¬ . The winner has the chance to take compete in the World Championship. Of course a Facebook page holds all the information such as ideos, interview s with participants, articles etc. As 3in1 is the most popular, easy to use and beloved by youngsters product, it has many profiles. More games and little competitions such as: fan of the month; inspiring moments, the award was a journey to Austria (picture with the winner posted). There fans can find out about the relationship with the biggest music festival in Bulgaria Ã¢â¬â Spirit of Burgas and how one can win free entrance tickets. As a whole Nescafe`s Facebook page promises successful further development. It is proof of consumer`s loyalty judging by all the posts and super-frequent fan`s activity.Nescafe includes all the recommendable points. It entertains the followers with many games as Ã¢â¬Å"Connect the DotsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"How many red Nescafe cups can you find in the picture? Ã¢â¬ Urges likes by animating The Cup begging to become red or expressing hope that it will gain many birthday wishes. Very often it asks question like: Ã¢â¬Å"Which is you favoriteÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Which of those do you prefer? Ã¢â¬ It is creating more personal relationship through opportunities to publish NesCards with wishes for friends or family and is constantly seeking for opinions and recommendations from its fans.NESCAFE ON TWITTER Although Twitter, especially in Bulgaria, is not so common used social media, it still has an impact on the customer. With around 7000 followers and 700 tweets, Nescafe official fan page provides the insights we get from the advertising. By using social media, producers interacts with customers better and can easily understand their needs and wants. It gives the opportunity both sides to be up-to-date with all new trends, changing every second.Short inquires towards users and questions, concerning the product give the users freedom to share their opinions, which leads to improving the qualities of Nescafe and better integrating to the marketing environment . By sending messages up to 140 letters Nescafe official page emphasiz es mainly on the good start of the day with a cup of coffee. Most of their posts are made in the morning and bring cheerful and optimistic upbeats. Funny comments or witty pictures consisting of key words such as Ã¢â¬Å¾coffeeÃ¢â¬Å" of well-known Nescafe logo are hidden marketing tricks, providing the customer with incentives to choose the exact product. 6 NESCAFE Ã¢â¬â YOUTUBE CHANNEL Currently, YouTube is visited by more than 15 million internet users per day and around 100 million videos are being viewed each day. These guerrilla marketing Ã¢â¬Å"live adsÃ¢â¬ would also be recorded and edited into YouTube videos, explaining the message of Ã¢â¬Å"life without compromiseÃ¢â¬ and the connection to the convenience and great quality of NESCAFE products. The videos from all the Ã¢â¬Å"live adsÃ¢â¬ would be uploaded to the NESCAFE YouTube channel called Ã¢â¬Å"NESCAFE Ã¢â¬â life without compromiseÃ¢â¬ .The YouTube channel would then be distributed and shared using soci al media, by NESCAFE and consumers. These videos will also be shared through NESCAFEÃ¢â¬â¢s Facebook page in order to leverage on the high volume of traffic it already experiences. You should keep in mind that Using YouTube as part of your businessÃ¢â¬â¢s social media marketing strategy can assist you in getting the type of visitors that you want. YouTube users are generally better leads because they have generally already seen a video you have posted, and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t click on your links unless they like what they see.In Youtube brands need to produce videos that offer true value to their intended audiences. This softer sell defines YouTubeÃ¢â¬â¢s role in your marketing strategy. This soft sell comes in the form of the information or instruction you provide. Perhaps thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a video newscast where you talk about industry news or technical developments; perhaps itÃ¢â¬â¢s a how-to video that shows people how to use your product to do something useful. In any case, viewer s watch the video because it provides valuable information; what they retain is a sense of your brand or company as a source of authority on the topic at hand.Research has shown that video marketing has become one of the most vital methods of marketing on the net and that it is starting to replace many other forms of marketing. Instead of using just any marketing tool, many marketers are now opting for using video as their preferred marketing tool. YouTube videos are often placed on content-aggregating sites and blogs related to the brand ; those pages use scripts to get the links to the newest videos on the YouTube and have them embedded automatically; getting included on some sites with high traffic can increase video views.YouTube referrals Ã¢â¬â surprisingly many people are spending hours watching random videos on that site Ã°Å¸Ëâ° if you will set proper tags to your video, they will get more traffic, and again: more traffic means more people will get to know the product! R ecommendation Youtube As YoutubeÃ¢â¬â¢s influence is growing and the siteÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities can enhance the product performance ,it has to take major part in the NescafeÃ¢â¬â¢s Advertising campaign in the social medias. It would be beneficial to post more often videos with customerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion and news regarding future events Ã¢â¬âwith interviews of the organisators etc.Another good strategy is to promote the Youtube channels more on their Facebook page so that more people will engage in commenting and if there is a poll ,for example , the company will receive more feedback on their future projects. More fun and interactive games or videos can be uploaded in order to gather more attention and inspire engagement . Good ideas for Nescafe will be to make an video contest . Try offering a reward for the contest online and advertise it everywhere you can. People will follow you and will fill out their information if it means they might win a contest. 17NESCAFE AD CAMPAIGM S AROUND THE WORLD Nescafe has vast amount of supporters through the social media (Facebook, Twitter,Youtube). It has the power and ability to create and expand its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ base and in this way promote the product to large number of people with little resources. There are different Facebook pages for the various countries and the way the product is presented in each has some variations depending on the cultural and economical differences between the various countries. There are many examples for campaigns launched or promoted via Social media and the result is astonishing.The probability that certain marketing campaign to be successful is greater if social media is involved, it makes the process for gathering information and receiving feedback easier and more convenient. The marketing power of Nescafe is great and it has achieved much more results thanks to its games, campaigns or quizzes that it has launched on the internet. There are many examples for the impact of socia l media on the marketing campaigns is evident. For example when a certain campaign going to take place , on Facebook or twitter Nescafe posts interesting photos or questions in order to capture the interest of its potential customers.It also relies on Ã¢â¬Å"word of mouth Ã¢â¬Å" ,hoping that when more people know about certain event they can spread the word ,leading to wide amount of people participating in the event. Another strategy Nescafe uses is to promote its new products via interesting or innovative ways. The secret to an entertaining social media campaign is to make the campaign relevant, have a character the target audience can relate with, and reduce brand fatigue by encouraging participation.One example is when Nescafe was searching for a cool way to reveal its newly designed coffee tin, so it came up with a creative Facebook campaign that traded beans for Ã¢â¬Ëlikes. Ã¢â¬Ë First, they took a picture of a glass container containing nothing but the new Nescafe tin. T hen they took the same photo after filling the container with coffee beans. They removed coffee beans and continued shooting until the tin was finally revealed. This sequence played out on Facebook based on the number of Ã¢â¬Ëlikes' they received.Every time a Facebook user Ã¢â¬Ëliked' the page, more beans were removed. On their Bulgarian Facebook page , often in the morning there is inspirational quote so that the more of the users log in their Facebook accounts they will Receive the news in their news Feed and they can share or comment so in that way more users will see it. 18 CONCLUSION Social media possesses incredible influential power, and since the advent of the Internet it's evolved from a simple way for people to keep in touch into a massive global network connecting organizations, communities and people.Social media is the easiest, fastest and most explosive way to transmit and receive information! And best of all Ã¢â¬â absolutely anyone can take advantage of it. Act ive membership of the most frequented social network is now over one billion people, one out of every seven people on earth is on Facebook! With the global population still rapidly growing, itÃ¢â¬â¢s become abundantly clear that social media is no passing fad either. Its influence is remarkable. Small businesses and large corporations alike have tapped into this influence to reach new customers and generate real, honest communication.The best advice for every company is to embrace the ubiquity of social media and use its power to better yourself, your business, or cause. Relating to our finding about NescafeÃ¢â¬â¢s global marketing strategy, the ways it is presented in the social media , it is evident that Nescafe is investing a lot of efforts and financial means to keep up with the changing consumer need and wants. It is irrevocable that with their ad campaigns in various media such as Facebook and Twitter more people will know about their new developments and their consumer ba se will widen in a much greater speed.Using different techniques and new interactive methods for gathering attention is good way to show their commitment and inspire engagement . Another good platform mentioned is Youtube, with its 800 million active users monthly the power of broadcasting is undeniable, which is used by Nescafe for sharing videos of previous ads ,posting interactive videos and acquiring vast amount of comments and recommendations from active their users. Another great techniques which is frequently used in Facebook pages is to promote every day the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ by showing interesting facts, quotes that can gather attention via sharing or commenting by the users.The different analyses(Swot , Pest ) can prove the marketing power of Nescafe in the coffee industry also outline its potential competitors ,the focus areas where more attention should be paid and the strengths of its brand image. The strong brand image of Nescafe has been built through the years, undoub tedly it has wide consumer base thanks to its great variety of products, which can satisfy the need and wants of a large number of people, differing in age, profession, gender and country of origin.Marketing is changing rapidly due to rapid change in technology and Nescafe should strive to achieve greater power in the social media with applying new and innovative strategies to boost the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, financial state and image . 19 References: www. nestle. com www. nescafe. bg www. nescafe. com http://www. youtube. com/user/nescafe http://www. facebook. com/Nescafe. BG? fref=ts http://www. facebook. com/Nescafe3in1Bulgaria https://twitter. com/following http://mashable. com/category/social-media-marketing/ http://www. assignmentpoint. com/business/international-business/report-onnescafe. html 20
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Promise and Peril of Editing in Proof The Promise and Peril of Editing in Proof The Promise and Peril of Editing in Proof By Mark Nichol Which method of editing is the most effective one? Which content formats should be employed, and how many iterations are necessary? Ultimately, what works for the publisher is the best approach, but consider that what is most expedient is often at odds with what is best. Until a generation ago, typewritten manuscripts were edited on paper: Editors would mark changes with a pen or pencil, and writers would type (or hire someone to type) a new version; this process might be repeated at least a couple of times, as the manuscript underwent first developmental (comprehensive thematic and structural) editing and then copyediting (the nuts and bolts of word style and usage and of grammar and syntax, or sentence formation). The last iteration would then be given to a typesetter, who would transcribe the text using a word-processing device, incorporating the last set of penciled-in revisions as he or she went along, and would format it according to its intended mode of presentation. A proof, or a facsimile of the manuscriptÃ¢â¬â¢s intended published appearance, would then be printed out, and a proofreader would check the proof against the final typed version, glancing back and forth ad infinitum to check for typographical errors as well as duplicated, omitted, or misplaced text and for formatting errors. The typesetter would then enter corrections and print out a new iteration, and the proofreader would spot-check the corrected elements and passages. This exchange would then be repeated if and as necessary. (Some publishers, notably the National Geographic Society, paired two people: one to read the original final manuscript aloud while the other checked the corresponding proof text and marked any errors observed.) As desktop publishing evolved, this process was streamlined: Editors revised directly in content files using simplified word-processing programs such as Microsoft Word. And because the content was copied and pasted into the proof file, rather than laboriously typed, proofreaders no longer had to compare proofs against the manuscript word for word; they merely examined the proofs for errors, consulting the manuscript only occasionally for clarification if at all. Early on in this new paradigm, the proofreader would mark a printout of the proof, and a member of the publicationÃ¢â¬â¢s production staff, or a freelance graphic designer or production artist, would enter the changes and then generate a new iteration of the proof, and the proofreader or another person would check corrections. Then, in the last few years, it became easier for proofreaders to revise proofs themselves using programs such as Adobe Acrobat. Ultimately, some publishers have decided to occasionally or routinely forgo the manuscript-editing process (either the copyediting stage alone or both developmental editing and copyediting) and Ã¢â¬Å"flowÃ¢â¬ the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s raw (or developmentally edited but not copyedited) manuscript directly into proof, then have it edited when it is already in its formatted form. This certainly saves much time and effort, but it also complicates the process, because developmental editors and copy editors must then maintain the parameters of the copyfit- they cannot insert, omit, or relocate content without perhaps significantly altering the layout, which may require more time and effort by design and/or production staff. If the editor is given authority to copyfit as needed, he or she can revise the text so that it fits the format, but this may compromise the quality of the content because of the limits of that format. I have edited and proofread content that appears in all these manifestations, starting out by editing my college newspaper using a manual typewriter, Wite-Out, scissors, and red pencils. A few of my contemporaries still prefer to mark up a piece of paper, but I have embraced the expeditious advantages of editing in proof (though for most of my employers and clients, I continue to edit in Word and proof in Acrobat), and I predict that this strategy will soon be the norm. But publishers, from mom-and-pop marketers to multinational corporations, must weigh the benefits and drawbacks and take care not to cut corners by, say, minimizing comprehensive reorganization and revision of a manuscript because it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t adhere to a templated publication format or eliminating copyediting and proofreading because they are costly, time-consuming steps. Too many publications already suffer, sometimes egregiously, from a de-emphasis on (or even outright dismissal of) the editing process, and the art of turning a competent composition into a compelling one must not be suborned to an efficiency that ignores the crucial factor of quality. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Coordinating vs. Subordinating Conjunctions75 Idioms and Expressions That Include Ã¢â¬Å"BreakÃ¢â¬ Parataxis and Hypotaxis
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
History and Evolution of Vinyl Polyvinyl chloride or PVC was first created by the German chemist Eugen Baumann in 1872. Eugen Baumann never applied for a patent. Polyvinyl chloride or PVC was never patented until 1913 when German, Friedrich Klatte invented a new method of the polymerization of vinyl chloride using sunlight. Friedrich Klatte became the first inventor to receive a patent for PVC. However, no really useful purpose for PVC was found until Waldo Semon came along and made PVC a better product. Semon had been quoted as saying, People thought of PVC as worthless back then [circa 1926]. Theyd throw it in the trash. Waldo Semon - Useful Vinyl In 1926, Waldo Lonsbury Semon was working for the B.F. Goodrich Company in the United States as a researcher, when he invented plasticized polyvinyl chloride. Waldo Semon had been trying to dehydrohalogenate polyvinyl chloride in a high boiling solvent in order to obtain an unsaturated polymer that could bond rubber to metal. For his invention, Waldo Semon received United States patents #1,929,453 and #2,188,396 for the Synthetic Rubber-like Composition and Method of Making Same; Method of Preparing Polyvinyl Halide Products. All About Vinyl Vinyl is the second most produced plastic in the world. The first products from vinyl that Walter Semon produced were golf balls and shoe heels. Today, hundreds of products are made from vinyl, including Ã¢â¬â¹shower curtains, raincoats, wires, appliances, floor tiles, paints and surface coatings. According to the Vinyl Institute, like all plastic materials, vinyl is made from a series of processing steps that converts raw materials (petroleum, natural gas or coal) into unique synthetic products called polymers. The Vinyl Institute states that vinyl polymer is unusual because it is based only in part on hydrocarbon materials (ethylene obtained by processing natural gas or petroleum), the other half of the vinyl polymer is based on the natural element chlorine (salt). The resulting compound, ethylene dichloride, is converted at very high temperatures to vinyl chloride monomer gas. Through the chemical reaction known as polymerization, vinyl chloride monomer becomes polyvinyl chloride resin that can be used to produce an endless variety of products.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
PEESTLE analysis for cine world and odeo - Essay Example In case people change their behaviors by watching a cinema then obviously, Cineworld can change the public behavior. Technologically, Cineworld and odeo use up to date 3D technology. It was one of the earliest buyers of the new innovated technology which eases the customers in the best way (Directors report and financial statements 2013). Legal-Before making any strategy, Cineworld and odeo considers not only U.KÃ¢â¬â¢s legal implications, but also national legislation changes, international European Union, and their prospects as well (Odeon & UCI Finco plc financial results 2013). Environmentally, Cineworld and odeo cinemas encourage their clients to come along with glasses for watching 3D movies. This strategy had to be implemented due to the substantial glasses that were being recycled (Odeon & UCI Finco plc financial results 2013). In looking at Odeo from social cultural perspective, a trip to it has always remained affordable plus entertaining. In addition, the cinema caters for all age groups. Technologically, the cinema has introduced special effects in their cinema and introduced an online platform for users to book online tickets to their
Friday, November 1, 2019
Insider Trading - Essay Example A corporate officer, for instance, who uses information known to him, but not to the public, to purchase or buy securities is generally guilty of insider trading. Exceptions may be allowed for certain transactions which are immaterial or which are reported the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. It must also be noted, however, that the concept of insider trading extends beyond corporate officers and insiders in the technical sense. It also includes people who provide tips to outsiders. This secondary portion of the definition ensures that the primary subjects of the law, corporate officers and fiduciaries, cannot escape punishment by secretly providing information to outsiders and non-fiduciaries (Insider Trading, 2006). The causes of insider trading are quite easy to understand. To illustrate, a corporate officer knows when the value of the corporation is going to increase or decrease. Perhaps there are secret negotiations for a takeover in which share prices are going to increase. He can sell his securities in order to maximize his profits or minimize his losses.