Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Japanese History Essay

The Taisho era, which occurred from 1912 to 1926, is part of Japan’s history. This era was regarded as the period of great righteousness. Emperor Taisho reigned during this time. This time was also considered as democratic compared to other eras after it which were characterized as chaotic and military- oriented. During the Taisho Period the new emperor’s health weakened. This prompted the shift of authority from the old oligarchic, which was ruled by â€Å"elder statesmen†, to the Diet, which was composed of democratic parties. This is why during this era, liberal movement which is knowned as the â€Å"Taisho Democracy† evolved in Japan. After the death of the Meiji Emperor, the Crown Prince Yoshihito took the thrown. This marks the beginning of the Taisho Period. The period begun with political crisis, this interfered with other political negotiations. Misunderstandings brought down the Seiyukai Party in the cabinet. The public was angry and demands to terminate the genro politics or the old oligarchic system. They were supported by another party, the Saionjai. New party, the Rikken Doshikai won against the Seiyukai Party in the House. After World War I, Japan experienced unparalleled prosperity. Japan participated in the peace treaty of Versailles during 1919. They were also part of the â€Å"Big Five† which was a new order recognized internationally. Members of â€Å"Big Five† are countries which have great military and industrial supremacy around the globe. Tokyo, Japan’s capital city received a permanent seat in the League of the Nations Council. Germany’s pacific colonies were also transferred to Japan as Germany loses its rights in Shandong. Truly Japan evolved as an international player in international politics after the war. In September 29, 1918, Hara â€Å"Japanese History† â€Å"page# 2† Takashi, which is from the Saionji Party, was the first ever commoner to become the Prime Minister. The Emperor in Japan will only be the head of the state and not of the government. Different economic and national crises came to him. The public were enchanted with increasing national debts and election laws. The public was disappointed – students, professors, labor movements, including journalists. They were inspired by different schools of thoughts whether communist, socialist or democratic. They conducted massive public demonstrations. After the elections the Seiyukai Party regained the majority. Both communist and socialist parties flourished. This probably made this era more democratic for the public can freely say what they want to the government without fear of military interventions. After sometime, parliamentary system was established. Hara was later on assassinated. After sometime, the Peace Preservation Law was passed. This prohibits any chage in the structure of politics. The disagreements in the Diet results to the introduction of Rikken Minseito – a newly formed coalition of the Seiyu Honto (Seiyukai) and the Kenseikai. This party is committed to promote world peace, democracy and the parliamentary system of government. End of the Era In 1926, Emperor Taisho died and Crown Prince Hirohito assumes the thrown. This ends the Taisho Period. The democratic system of government continued to flourish I Japan during 1920’s. But the next decade, military forces become dominant and the parliamentary system of government was not able to withstand it along with both fiscal and political crises. â€Å"Japanese History† â€Å"page# 3† World War II The Second World War occurred during 1939 to 1945. It is a war between the Allies and the Axis. The Allies was composed mainly by China, France, United Kingdom, Soviet Union and United States. On the other hand, Japan, Italy and Germany were the member of the Axis. After Japan prosper in the postwar and gain political power internationally, Western leaders assumed that Japan is capable of conquering and unite Asia through Emperor Hirohito. In 1937, Japan invaded China with the goal to expand its territory and use its resources. Japanese also invaded the French Indochina. After these invasions the Netherlands, United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, who has stakes in Japan’s colonies, move to prohibit the export of Japan to be shipped to other places. The Western countries ask China for loans in order to have secret military covers. With pressure against it, Japan has no choice but to free its colonies or to declare war to conquer territories. Japan opted to start a war in the Pacific and launch attacks on Malaya, Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong and Hawaii. China has been under Japan for six years. Pearl Harbor Attack The Japanese military devised an attack in the Hawaii, specifically in Pearl Harbor. The attack was the initial phase of the Japanese in their war against US. The US embargo Japan because it is invading China. The embargo weakened Japan’s Military and economy. Japan wanted the embargo to be lifted by threatening the US for they know that the US does not have enough resources to launch a war. Pearl Harbor is the United States’ naval base and the location of the US’s Pacific Fleet. Japanese wanted to cripple US’s naval operations and attacked Pearl Harbor. The Japanese believed that destroying the US naval base would stop â€Å"Japanese History† â€Å"page# 4† US from fighting into war. The US military forces decoded Japanese code about the attack but it was too late. It was eight in the morning when Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. The attack left more than 3500 American dead. Eighteen ships were badly damaged including eight battleships of the Pacific Fleet. Almost 350 aircrafts were destroyed and more than a thousand people died when the USS Arizona Battleship sunk. On December 8, 1941, the US launched war against Japan. The US dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, then on Nagasaki. Later on, Japan Surrendered. References: Erickson, J. , and Dilks, D. (1994). Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Glantz, David M. (1991). From the Don to the Dnepr: Soviet Offensive Operations, December 1942 – August 1943. London: Cass. Haslam, J. (1992). The Soviet Union and the Threat from the East, 1933 – 41: Moscow, Tokyo, and the Prelude to the Pacific War. London: Macmillan. Harrison, M. ed. (1998). The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Global Opportunities for Pounder Bicycle Company Essay

Business firms struggle to remain global in scope and these organizations are faced with several challenges in there contemporary business dealings and there is a requirement for such firms to struggle for there continued existence. Research indicates that business environment keeps on varying as these organizations endeavour to sustain their market share as well as provide quality products/services to there clientele. Business environment entails both internal and external features that may influence upon the expansion and general performance of the business. Contemporary firms are required to construct economic and political links that typically take the structure of transfer of goods, finances and populace across national boundaries. This phase of relationships has in the process witnessed combined sharing of information and philosophies that has led to enhancement in the swiftness of change, ambiguity, uncertainty, and impulsiveness in day to day business undertakings (Lee and Carter, 2005). This paper will therefore examine Australian business environment and particularly examine the current political, economic, social-cultural, technological and legal environmental factors that impacts business entry to Australia. It will further examines the concept of globalization with relevance to Pounder Bicycle Company’s competitors, overall market size, marketing strategies, market entry strategies, project costs and the benefits that the company will attain if it will succeed in Australia. Australia Environmental Analysis Political  Political factors may have a direct and indirect effect on the performance of the Pounder Bicycle Company. Some of the decisions made by the Australian government may impact negatively on the operations of Pounder Bicycle. For instance, the decision to minimize the production and marketing of high performance bicycles to countries believed to be a threat to Australian local industries. This will definitely have huge implications to the company particularly in the marketing of bicycles in Australia. Economic Every business organization including Pounder Bicycle Company is affected by economic factors. Fiscal policy rates, inflation, interest rate policy, cash exchange rates, monetary policy and consumer factors among other economic factors set forth in Australia may have an impact on the company’s undertakings in Australia. Research indicates that the Australian climate of the economy dictates how the consumer behaves in the economy. Australian economy is reported to be in a boom thus there is increased speculation that the company’s customers can obtain the bicycles comfortably i. e. comfortable with the prices of the array of bicycles. Opportunities for the company however exist since Australia government opts cycling of tourists meaning there is market for the bicycles because it supports the economic growth of Australia (Austroads, 1999). Social-Cultural Forces within the Australian community such as family, friends and media will have an impact on how Pounder’s Bicycles will perform in the market. Research reveals that in Australia, many customers have been misinformed to believe that bicycles from Australia only are of quality and of high quality thus those coming from outside Australia may be of low quality. Such social factors affect the customer’s attitude, opinions and interests on how they will approach the Pounder’s bicycles in Australian market. Technological The way Pounder Bicycle Company will operate its business will also depend on technology changes. The internet will boost the company’s chances to meet new markets in Australia and extend its global outreach. However, it can be noted that the company will not require high technological inventions since it will manufacture traditional bicycles and market the bicycles in Australia. Legal  The way the company will operate in terms of operating rules of law in Australia will matter a lot. The company will be engaged in legal business practice of marketing bicycles which is permitted by Australian law. Therefore Pounder Company will not be against the Australian law thus it will be an ideal opportunity for the company to market its bicycles in its new market i. e. Oceania Australia (Cycling Promotion Fund, 2006). Industry Analysis Australia is one of the most powerful nations in the world boasting of a well-built society, politics, customs and economy. It has contributed significantly to the entire economy of Europe and the entire world today over the past. Right from the beginning of European incorporation, it has been a main contributor to the expansion of the European Union and it is looked upon as one of the pillars of the continent and the European Union at large. Australia is vigorously concerned in almost every phase of the European Union and the most outstanding ones are; provision of political leadership, military relations, economies, diplomacy and policy making. Sale of bicycles in Australia is a popular market since many of the individuals living in Oceania use bicycles to travel to workplaces and learning institutions among other places. Research indicates that bicycles in Australia are popular means of transport since many people believe that the use of such bicycles are of great benefits particularly health benefits i. e. by riding bicycles to various places it is a way of exercise thus individuals have no need to go to gyms for further practise. The growth of bicycle industry can be traced back to 17th century in Australia which by then bicycles were the most popular and convenient way of transport in the country. Good economy, stable exchange rates, flexible import duties, better trade tariffs and more importantly, the single currency used by the two countries are factors that promotes international marketing. Europeanization has directly affected the governments of the member states; this means that the developments that Australia has gained so far in culturally and domestically are linked to the European Union’s progress (Hill, 2005). The comments by the Minister of Transport of Australia and Regional Services Mr. John Anderson that the enhancement of the total of secure cycling in Australia will improve the Australian well being automatically indicates that the bicycle industry in Australia is popular and therefore Pounder Bicycle Company has the opportunity to utilize such ready markets in Australia. The minister further believes that a raise in cycling will advance transportation access for lots of the local people in Australia, amplify levels of personal health and also trim down the greenhouse emanations, air contamination and traffic jams. Further more, cyclists and non-cyclists will gain from lesser health expenditure in the society, a smaller amount of traffic on Australian infrastructure and more importantly enjoy cleaner air (Cycling Promotion Fund, 2006). Therefore with such reasons and intentions by the Australian government it implies that cycling is more encouraged and thus Pounder Bicycle Company can venture in Australia since it will face no hostility or lack of market for the bicycles since the government of Australia encourages individuals to use bicycles in their day to day activities. Further, the size of bicycle market in Australia is reportedly to be approximately over a billion dollars at retail level per year; adults in this case are highest buyers or owners of the bicycles as compared to children. Also there are a variety of bicycles being sold by different companies who manufacture bicycles in Australia; many have emphasized on the comfort and speed of such bikes. Therefore with such industry trends in Australia Pounder Bicycle Company will have the opportunity of selling traditional bicycles to Australians since research indicates that such types of bicycles are on the decline (Cycling Promotion Fund, 2006). Market Pounder Bicycle Company should not concentrate on the Australian bicycle market but instead should identify particular market segments which will record high sales of traditional markets. Therefore the company will have not to compete in the entire market but rather identify its strongest segments that will ensure success of the company in Australia. Pounder Bicycle Company should utilize encirclement strategies for winning the competitors in Australian bicycle market. Such a strategy is also referred to as envelopment strategy and it is considered subtle, moderate and a bit non-offensive but dangerous way of offending the rival. Pounder Bicycle Company can utilize two ways using his approach. First, the company can introduce broad range of bicycles that are alike to the competitor’s bicycles and each of these bicycles will get a share of the same market the competitor is currently in. In the long term, the rival will be demoralized, undermined and depressed thus the competitor at large may opt to give up the market. Such technique will ensure that full scale confrontation is avoided between the company and the target competitors in Australia (Brassington and Pettitt, 2000). The second approach that the company may utilize is that approach of market niches rather than concentrating on bicycles themselves. In this approach, the market share is liberated from the target competitor via the expansion of market niches that surround it. With such strategies therefore the company can achieve substantial market share which will eventually leads to success of the company in the long-run (Brassington and Pettitt, 2000). Market Entry Since Pounder Bicycle Company has opted to go international i. e. enter Australian market several market entry strategies are available to the company to utilize. However, such entry strategies differ with cost, risk and the degree of control which can be put into effect over them with particular regards to security of markets i. e. whether it will be successful. Pounder Bicycle Company should utilize the indirect method of entry to Australian market: Under indirect exporting market entry strategy, an exporter can access foreign market free from risks of doing it directly. It will involve Pounder Bicycle Company using independent organizations within the Australia’s domestic markets. The company can do this through various ways; for example, a domestic based export merchants, who will take the title of the bicycles and sells them in Australia, domestic based export agents who sell and market the bicycles on behalf of the company and co-operative organizations who act on behalf of the company. Pounder Bicycle Company should utilize such strategy by either choosing to use one of the above methods of indirect exporting because of the following advantages; communication is very much easy because the exporting company is domestically based and the risks of investing are much lower than coming up with full market in the host country i. e. in Australia (Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders, and Wong, 1999). Project Costs and Financing The whole project of entering the Australian market will require Pounder Bicycle Company to have substantial amount of resources in order to ensure the success of the firm in its business endeavours. The cost of entering the market for instance may be high thus necessitating the company to look for alternative way of sourcing funds. Further the cost of materials to manufacture enough bicycles to be sold in Australia may be high. The company therefore can utilize its own resources i. e. its savings although it should not exhaust all the financial resources in such venture because business entails risk taking. Therefore, the company should opt for loans from financial institutions in order to combine such funds with the internal financial resources that it has. Clear financial forecasting as well as financial cash budgets should be prepared by the company’s management in order to spend the financial resources effectively and wisely. HR Issues and Organization Structure Pounder Bicycle Company will be faced by issue of workforce diversity which is the spread of human labor across the entire globe irrespective of their area of specialization and skills entailed. The existence of the globalization concept have been realized when diverse patterns in workforce are put into consideration. Pounder Bicycle Company will also employ people from the host country i. e. Australia thus the firm will have to adhere to rules and regulations set forth for businesses in Australia regarding employer-employee relationships (Hoyer, 2001). The most excellent means Pounder Bicycle Company can openly develop its financial performance in the industry is to employ, choose and train the right personnel. The most excellent strategic exercise to realize this goal is to carry out what is usually termed as job-fit practice. Such practice is practical to the company since the workforce to be recruited will not be required to undertake further extensive training but carry out their responsibilities right away applying their skills gained somewhere else. Organizational effectiveness can only be achieved if the management of the company is be able to incorporate good leadership, motivation, a well defined organizational structure, forming group dynamics and setting up good structures for communicating in the workplace. Pounder Bicycle Company should formulate a flexible organization structure in the sense that they should be ready to cope with change without affecting their productivity especially when it intends to go international (Cullen and Parboteeah, 2005). Strategic Benefits to Pounder Bicycle Company An analysis of business environment will help the company to know of all the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that the company will face in there quest to expand to Australian market. Therefore the company will be able to consider the following factors: The speed of entering the Oceania market, flexibility/free and exit barriers, the costs to be incurred when entering Oceania market, the risks inherent in the course of entering the market, period of payback/how quick the firm can start earning the returns or proceeds from such investments and the company’s long run goals among other factors will be clearly known in advance. With ascertainment of the above factors therefore, Pounder Bicycle Company will be able to identify its strategic benefits form any opportunities that exist in the Australian market. For instance, the company will benefit from large market share since there is high demand of bicycles in Australia thus the company will realize substantial revenues because of high sales. The company will also strategize well in Australia thus being able to compete effectively with its both local and international competitors (Lovelock, 2006). Conclusion Business environment keeps on changing because of globalization and the concept of international businesses. Businesses therefore are faced with a lot of threats as well as have a lot of opportunities brought about by such aspects of business world. To attain greater investments and better market opportunities in the international market, it is necessary that primary and secondary market research is done (Cullen and Parboteeah, 2005).

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Happines and Contemplation

â€Å"Happiness is Contemplation† Happiness is secured through virtue; it is a good attained by man s own will. In his book â€Å"Happiness and contemplation† Josef Pieper; reassures this statement. And, in a systematic way he devoutly presents, the tlrst halt ot his book to the examination ot happiness; the Importance of Its linguistic extraction, from the simple way to the spiritual, why we desire happiness, and the nature of our longing for It, The metaphysics of happiness, the possibility of happiness and goodness of being stand or fall together, the cause of happiness, the relationship between happiness and Joy, as well as the means to happiness.The latter he argues is contemplation; which he sees as an Intultlve perception ot the universal good enthused and sharpened by love. contemplation us such Is gradually assembled to the Idea of the need of human happiness; with different meanings and alms he concludes that Contemplation Is â€Å"d focusing on the inner gaz e, undistracted by anything from outside, but troubled from within by the challenge to achieve a profounder?. peace. Happiness is sold as a product in the marketing world and we as humans boldly buy we as society tall Into the trap otthe old tormula â€Å"greatest happiness. tor the greatest number. (13) so It comes to us Ilke a surprise when we hear that mans ultimate happiness consists in contemplation. It would not be wise to discard the proposition that contemplation is man happiness, however we deeply analyze the meaning of the word and the roots of it.Happiness is rooted in God and therefore in beatitude Happiness has many meanings in vernacular language, but, none of them have any connection with the splrlt or virtue ot the person, they are all related to the enjoyment or pleasure of the body. St. Thomas estates happiness† as an â€Å"attainment of d created good† and all humans can experience It In many different ays, from the drinking of water when thirsty to the enjoyment of the company of a loved one. However the appearance of happiness in satisfaction is not enough. The pursuit of happiness† comes to us as human nature, we want happiness by nature. because we are the only beings that can feel It. it would be unnatural to think that an animal feel happiness. so, to us Is a necessity and should be our ultimate human goal because this Is something that we cannot control, with this we conclude that happiness should be the ultimate goal of human life. Human nature conditions human souls to desire happiness, even though arguments gainst this concept might arise; ultimately we can say that men will have not the power to not want happiness.Happiness as a concept ot satiation ot our own pursuit, provides for us the drink that will sausfy our thirst, and analyzing the complexity of human nature and all the needs of humans we only have to look up to the only perfect being, The only one who is Happy by his mere existence. â€Å"To God alon e may perfect beatitude be attributed, by virtue of his nature. † (28) Looking to â€Å"happiness† as part of human nature and looking up to God as the ultimate happy being, the summa reassures this tor us as St Thomas concludes that Any human being who Is happy share In happiness that Is not of himself.For God, existence. † By this we conclude that God and happiness are the same, we fall in the same conclusion God as an impaired divine being. Exploring more the concept of â€Å"Happiness† as a pursuit and an end; we come to explore a metaphor where we see happiness as a thirst and we relate this thirst, as seeking happiness as a satiation of the will which demands quenching and this quenching of the thirst is happiness.However, this simple metaphor can unfold in two parts one looking to â€Å"happiness as drink† and the other with â€Å"happiness as rinking† This can fall into the satisfaction of a non virtuous nature, as humans our thirsts s ometimes go to extremes, man seek fame, fortune, wealth, and pleasures to quench our thirst but ultimately we realize that our happiness depends upon the glory of God. Because of this holy longing we are guided to conclude that the greatest happiness is sharing in eternity. So the satiation of this hunger and thirst only will not be satiated unless we partake of God himself.Is happiness nothing but gladness overflowing, infinite Joy? St. Thomas will say NO. Happiness without Joy is unthinkable; but they are two different things. In the Summa both concepts get clarified as Thomas explains it. â€Å"Therefore a person rejoices because he possesses a good appropriate to him†whether in reality, or in hope, or at least in memory. The appropriate good, however, if it is perfect, is precisely the man's happiness†¦ Thus it is evident that no t even the Joy which follows the possession of the perfect good is the essence of happiness itself. Enjoying life, filling with meaningful things, like serving others, being charitable, surrendering yourself to God, doing the right thing when is needed. All these things ring Joy to my heart; the ends of my dedication to them are only building on my happiness as a man. Differentiating we conclude that Joy is essentially secondary, the response to happiness. But, Joy has not purpose beyond itself. Happiness as the attainment of â€Å"the whole good† even though is difficult to find the meaning of the word attain we can conclude that is the means we use to reach our goal, so we find happiness being the result of acting and doing.The idea of happiness as action reach to three propositions, happiness means perfection; perfection means realization; realization comes from acting. Happiness means erfection, â€Å"In perfect felicity the whole man is perfected,† Perfection means full realization† felicity must consist in man's attainment of the uttermost degree of being real. â€Å"Realization is achieved b y action† in analyzing this concept one might think of this of being an outward action, but, this should be done so this remains within the person himself.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Rhetorical Critique of Star Wars Episodes IV, V, VI Essay

Rhetorical Critique of Star Wars Episodes IV, V, VI - Essay Example Further, the devil value described by Weaver pertains to all opposites to the god terms. The evil terms includes communism. Communism is the opposite of democracy. Next, the rebel or those who fight against the established government and its policies, laws, morals, ethics, and other standards are classified as devil-related. Evil or the devil focuses on preventing the god-like acts from cropping up, continuing, and prospering (Duffy, 1993). God Value. Luke Skywalker espouses God value. Luke Skywalker has been consistent throughout the three movies. In Episode 4, Luke Skywalker imitates a God character, obedience or doing good acts. Luke Skywalker obeys his foster father’s instructions to prioritize the harvest of the crops over enrolling in school. Luke Skywalker obey’s Obi Wan Kenobi’s instructions to fight for what is right, the Jedi way of life (Brode, 2012). Sermonic language. In episode 4, episode 5 and episode 6, Obi Wan Kenobi’s sermon focuses on Luke Skywalker’s destiny (Lucas, 2012). Obi Wan Kenobi persuades Skywalker that Skywalker is the only person who is destined to stop Darth Vader’s attacks on the rebel base and its people. Episode 5 shows Yoda training Skywalker to be a better Jedi fighter. In Episode 6, Darth Vader continually sermons Skywalker that Vader cannot change from being bad to being good (Glut, 2011). Argument of cause-affect. The story shows Skywalker trying his best to convince his father to convert to a good person. In Episode 5, Skywalker learns that Darth Vader is his father (Glut, 2011). In Episode 6, Skywalker tries his best to convert his father to change to the good side. Skywalker’s refusal to kill his father triggered the conversion of Darth Vader from being an evil person to being a good person. Argument of authority. The three episodes show the importance of authority. The government forces will use force to

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Primate Observation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Primate Observation - Research Paper Example The unjust treatments subjected to the non-human primate species denies present and future humanity the chance to study and understand the closest relatives of the human species. Evidently, the study of the non-human primates such as gorillas, apes and chimpanzees offer insightful learning opportunities pertaining to their physical and social characteristics as well as relationship with human behaviour. To this end, the subsequent sections will delve into the primate description of two major non-human species. These are the gorillas and chimpanzees. The description will examine their social and mating structures, food acquisition strategies and intelligent levels. Furthermore, the literature herein will offer comparative analysis between the gorillas and chimpanzees as well examine their regional distribution. The final section will delve into the relationship between the two non-primates and the understanding of human behaviour. Primate Descriptions a) Gorillas The gorilla primates are evidently the largest cohort of the primate family. They also exhibit the closest relation with humans as 98% of their DNA is in conformity to man’s DNA (Jurmain, 157). Gorillas are mostly land dwelling animals since they do not climb trees. The gorillas are classified into two different species with four sub-species that are determined based on their physical characteristics and their geographic location. The first species is Gorilla gorilla with sub-species of G. g. gorilla, from western lowland and G. g. diehli from cross river (Taylor, 100). The second species is Gorilla beringei with sub-species of G. b. Graueri also known as eastern lowland and G. b. beringei also known as mountain gorilla (Taylor, 100). To this end, the subspecies vary in their habitats with distinct physical characteristics and different numbers of populations. In this regard, the Western gorilla and Eastern gorilla species are classified based on their geographic location within their African hab itat. The Eastern Gorilla has two subspecies known as the Eastern lowland gorilla and Mountain gorilla. The Eastern lowland gorilla is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Jurmain, 159). Their population is classified as endangered with less than 3000. Their physical characteristics place them as the largest among the gorilla species. They also have shorter hair and teeth compared to the mountain gorillas as well as possessing the longest arms. On the other hand, the mountain gorilla is classified as critically endangered as their population currently stands at less than 720. Their physical characteristics are consistent with angular nostrils, a wide face and a large skull. Moreover, it has longer hair and larger body compared to the eastern lowland gorilla (Taylor, 102). The two sub-species of the Western Gorilla are Western Lowland Gorilla and Cross River Gorilla. The Western lowland gorilla is also classified as critically endangered with a population of less than 100,000 (Taylor, 105). Its species is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Furthermore, its physical characteristics entail a silver-back colouring on the males which also covers the thighs. The hair on their heads is also redder. On the other hand, the Cross River Gorilla has a population of approximately 300 and labelled as critically e

Saturday, July 27, 2019

To what extent might Globalization be seen as disadvantageous to the Essay

To what extent might Globalization be seen as disadvantageous to the world in which we live - Essay Example There are several severe disadvantages as well and they include: The first disadvantage that talks about flow of manpower from developing countries to the developed countries is a phenomenon that many developed countries have witnessed. Countries like US, UK, France, Germany, and other developed countries have witnessed a flurry of demands of visas from people from developing countries who want to immigrate to them for better opportunities and lifestyle. Now, this puts pressure on the employment levels and many people might lose their jobs. This specifically applies to the economic situation prevailing now as the unemployment is ruling through the roof and is in vicinity of 10 percent in the US. Another problem is that of the drop in wages and salaries that people in developed countries might have to witness as a consequence of cheap labor entering into their countries. Another big disadvantage of Globalization is the something that the world is witnessing these days. This will be best explained in one of the points to follow. There is a sharp drop in growth of countries with a drop in growth of the Unites States. Also, the countries are facing a sharp liquidity crisis because of the subprime crisis of the US.The subprime crisis started with the subprime lenders lending at higher rates than usual to the borrowers with bad economic history and lesser ability to pay back. The subprime lending functions on the principle of no collateral and higher interests. There debt instruments are then traded and are passed on to other banks or institutions which are ready to take them for the higher interest they get out of them. Effects of the crisis on the US and World Economies and Recent Shutdowns Due to the passing on of the debt instruments some prominent hedge funds have failed to declare their current asset values. The problem has led to a total crunch of liquidity in the US. The markets witnessed BNP Paribas announce that it had frozen 3 of its hedge funds due to evaporation of liquidity, totaling around 1.6 billion pounds. The reason was that, it was not possible for the bank to value units of the funds due to the affect of the US subprime market on them. The funds contained the bundles of subprime loans, the demand for which have fallen drastically over the last few months. Banks around Europe feared a total liquidity crunch as they feared that they might run out of cash to sustain day to day lending. ECB went to the extent of injecting 155 billion pounds to ease the system of. Investors around the world started backing off

Friday, July 26, 2019

Social Ecology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Social Ecology - Essay Example The arguments of Holmes favor natural ecosystems. However, the author of this passage holds that human and non-human populations are equally crucial. Attfield points out that people should create an environment that embraces nonhuman and human coexistence (296). Robin asserts that sustainable development does not conflict with efforts to protect ecosystem. Robin Attfield agrees with Holmes on the aspects of preserving the wild species. He contends that people should preserve the current wildlife and natural habitats. However, Robin differs with Holmes on the best ways to preserve the natural ecosystem. Attfield asserts that human population should not move from their residential areas where there is peaceful coexistence with wildlife (297). The argument of the author contradicts the stand of Holmes that requires people reside away from natural reserves (296). Holmes argues that increasing human population poses a danger to the ecosystem. He argues that parents should have two children and should do away with extra ones. However, Robin asserts that every child there is an intrinsic value of life. The author argues that there are natural measures that control human population such as death. Robin points out that overcrowding can have indirect effects to natural resources (Attfield

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Socialization Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Socialization - Research Paper Example For others, there is just a willingness ‘to care for others’ (Calabrese 2004, p.21) without necessarily to focus on healing people. Emphasis should be given on the following fact: through the years, nurses tend to forget why they had become a nurse in the first instance (Calabrese 2004, p.21). It is assumed that the responsibilities of the particular role are many leading people to feel stressed and to feel less motivated towards nursing. Swansburg (1996) uses a different explanation for describing the willingness of people to become a nurse. According to Swansburg (1996) people are attracted to nursing just because of the challenges of the particular role (p.447). It is noted that through nursing people are given the chance ‘to realize their potentials’ (Swansburg 1996, p.447). It is implied that nursing is quite demanding, as a role, and requires people to put all their efforts in order to face the role’s daily challenges. At the same time, nursing offers people the opportunity ‘to show their creativity’ (Swansburg 1996, p.447). This is achieved by taking initiatives for facing emergent problems but also for managing cases that are quite complex and where there are no standardized solutions. In addition, nursing can be quite attractive to people that aim to communicate and cooperate with others (Swansburg 1996, p.447). A successful nurse needs to have high communication and cooperation skills, as the effective management of a case usually requires the use of plans that need to be supported by medical practitioners in different positions; for example, a patient who is severely traumatized due to an accident needs at the first level the support of the emergency medical staff, at least one medical practitioner and one nurse; at the next level, the patient will need a highly skilled surgeon supported by a team of appropriately trained nurses. When recovering, the patient will need the support of a nurse who will assis t the patient when developing the recovery program. Nurses have a critical role in arranging the above activities ensuring that all phases of a treatment plan are precisely followed so that the cases for failures are minimized (Swansburg 1996, p.447). From another point of view, Swansburg (1996) notes that people are likely to enter nursing only because they need to feel as members of a family (p.447). According to the above view, nursing can offer to people the sense of love and care, not only towards others but also towards themselves (Swansburg 1996, p.447). One of the most critical conditions for entering nursing seems to be the gender (Newell 2003, p.2). In fact, it seems that nursing is primarily a ‘female profession’ (Newell 2003, p.2), meaning that women are much more likely to be attracting to this profession compared to men. In any case, caring for others seems to be the key reason leading people to become a nurse (Newell 2003, p.4). The term caring in the abo ve case has many aspects. It can refer to the support provided to others in regard to a health problem (Newell 2003, p.4). Caring can also reflect the need of people ‘to connect with other human beings’ (Newell 2003, p.4). It should be also noted that caring, as a reason for entering nursing, has many implications. Taking risks in behalf of others is a critical aspect of caring in nursing (Newell 2003, p.4

Political Economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Political Economy - Essay Example In 1930 the Smoot-Hawley act was enacted to prevent U.S owners of factors of production from being threatened by the Great Depression at the time. The rates were set high to cushion them from incurring losses. On the other hand, the trading partners responded promptly by taking similar measures a move which worsened the economic condition that was prevailing. The congress was forced to act very fast in order to control the situation that was deteriorating and consequently the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act was implemented in 1934.The act gave the president the powers allow for tariffs that met the thresholds that had been agreed jointly by the trading partners (Cooper, 2014,pgs 2-3). Political institutions play a major role in coming up with trade tariffs and trade policies. Their main purpose is to protect the interests of traders from being exploited by their trading partners. When they participate in coming up with the tariffs such as having bilateral and multilateral agreements, a lot of opportunities are opened up for the citizens of the country and businesses operate in an efficient manner. The decisions made in coming up with these trade tariffs and policies has political consequences for the government in power because producers are most likely to support regimes that come up with policies that favor them. On the other hand, producers are likely to disregard regimes that come up with unfavorable policies according to them because they seem to be undermining their operations (World Trade Report, 2007, Pg 55). The Great Depression in the 1930s forced the U.S to review its trade policies and tariffs. The country was forced to bend low the trade barriers so as to forge economic cooperation with other countries. Trade became liberalized although the move was seen to have some political agenda. The U.S congress was adamant to give the president freedom

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Strategic Marketing Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Strategic Marketing Plan - Essay Example In essence, a smart TV is more like a smartphone and a great deal superior to the â€Å"idiot box† it used to be called (Sinclair 2011a, 3; Sinclair 2011c, 3). This strategic marketing plan is prepared for Samsung TV, which is particularly geared toward the Australian market. Before this report proceeds to Samsung TV, it will discuss the SBU in general first. Samsung (2011) aims to position itself as a leader in â€Å"innovative technology, distinctive designs, and a dual focus on convenience and value.† From 2007 to 2010, Samsung Electronics experienced continued revenue growth (Businessweek, 2011). The company posted 2007 revenues of $84.49 billion, which increased by $48.14 billion by 2010. In 2010, Samsung made $132.626 billion in revenues (Businessweek, 2011). Gross profit also jumped from $23.695 billion in 2007 to $44.569 billion in 2010 (Businessweek, 2011). Samsung also enjoyed profitability ratios that are part of the top ones in the industry. Return on Assets is 6.83%, Return on Capital is 9.11%, and Return on Equity is 16.07% (Businessweek, 2011). Gross margin is 31.86% and EBITDA Margin is 16.81% (Businessweek, 2011). Samsung Electronics Australia was created in1987 as a sales and marketing auxiliary of Samsung Electronics (AO3 2011). Samsung Electronics Australia is composed of three divisions: â€Å"Consumer Electronics, Information Technology, and Telecommunications† (AO3 2011). Furthermore, Samsung Australia’s TV business unit is considered as a â€Å"key driver in the Samsung Set Business portfolio, along with the Mobile phone business† (Samsung 2011). The TV business has held a strong top position in the market share (Samsung 2011). LED TVs have led the growth in the TV business, while Samsung’s LCD and Plasma TVs are also industry leaders (Samsung 2011). This indicates that for Samsung Australia, Samsung TV is a strategic fit within the corporate structure, because it sustains the marketing of innovation and

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Managerial Economics Week 10 Individual Work Assignment

Managerial Economics Week 10 Individual Work - Assignment Example User charges get money from people and business in terms of charging the benefits they receive. Examples include charges in Laundromats, soda from vending machines, iTunes, pay-per-view movies on cable TV, and Netflix Course offered in higher education institutions vary in terms of depth and quantity of course materials and requirements. Some courses are more demanding than others depending on the depth of the curriculum and student involvement. On this note, some courses may need more resources in order to meet the learning objectives and outcomes. Such variability in courses would affect the amount of pricing set by higher education institutions. It is logical for students pursuing courses that are more demanding with regard to resources to pay more for the extra load their courses are using. Most universities therefore charge different fees for different courses depending on the level of involvement and resources that particular course requires. The approach seems to be fair to students and most importantly, to the university in terms of resource management. There are different types of funding approaches universities and other institutions of higher learning can adopt (Barr, 2004). Other than pricing schemes that charge different fees for different courses, other institutions charge the same fees to all students. Such a pricing approach may be burdensome to some students and on the other hand be lenient to others. The difference between the two types of students varies depending on income distributions. Due to varying income distributions and inequalities, some students may find it easy to pay the fees while other may struggle with the fees. Since the fees are standard for all students regardless of their family incomes, this type of pricing scheme may not be fair to students with low family incomes. On the contrary, the same pricing scheme may not be high for student from families

Monday, July 22, 2019

Otto Von Bismarck Essay Example for Free

Otto Von Bismarck Essay Otto Von Bismarck was made Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by I in 1862. He stayed in power until 1890. His conduct of foreign policy between 1862 and 1871 is one of the most fascinating and complex parts of the nineteenth century. It ended with the unification of Germany on 18th January 1871, under Prussian dominance, with King William of Prussia being coroneted as Kaiser in Versailles. The German unification is possibly the most important and significant events in history, as it has had so many effects and consequences across the whole world, and still does to this day. One of the most widely debated topics of the nineteenth century is to what extent is Bismarck responsible for the unification. Basically, was Bismarck’s foreign policy more about conscious design, or a policy by default largely determined by other key personalities and events? Some people try and say that Bismarck was always heading towards German unification, and that he had been planning how to get there all along; but actually, Bismarck hardly planned a thing – he instead was just very good at taking things as they came. His main aim was to strengthen Prussia, and make it into a stronger country. An example of how Bismarck did not plan what he did is how he came to power. He was not elected, so he was not planning ways in which to gain votes etc. ; instead, he was suddenly catapulted from being ambassador to St. Petersburg, and then Paris, to being chancellor of Prussia. Bismarck was also known for his personality. It was this that initially got him to where he was. He was nicknamed ‘The Iron Chancellor†, and he fitted this name very well. In 1862, when William was refused money by liberals to pay for his army, he threatened to abdicate, but was persuaded to elect Bismarck as chancellor instead. Everybody who knew Bismarck knew him as being wild, and a bully, a conservative, an army man, and as being a ‘Machiavellian’. He was cunning, scheming, unscrupulous, vicious, manipulative, calculating, brutal, and devious, and also very good at improvising. It was these things that William liked about him, and Williams’s expectations of Bismarck were achieved. Immediately after being put in office, Bismarck suspended the constitution and gave the army the money it needed. Now he was in control of Prussia as it was maturing and reaching power. Another event that shows how Bismarck did not plan things is the Danish Crisis in Schleswig and Holstein in 1864. Some people say that Bismarck planned this, and did it to get Austria involved, and to be nice to her by giving her some land, but which he could take at any time as it was next to Prussia, and cause up rise. In reality, Denmark unexpectedly attempted to annex Schleswig and Holstein, and Bismarck just saw a chance to gain some land, respect, popularity, and a small advantage over Austria; he did not previously plan any of this, he just ‘played the cards he was dealt well’ e. g. e ended up doing it with Austria – this made him look good in front of everyone else, and also lulled Austria into a false sense of security. This was a first step towards Bismarck thinking cleverly about how he could get an upper hand over Austria. Although Bismarck did not necessarily plan all of the things that he did, he was very good at playing what came along well, and thinking about all of the consequences of his actions, and how he could use what he had to his best advantage; because of this, he was a great man who was clever and quick thinking, so we have not at all been deceived about him. It has often been said that Bismarck never meant for what most of what he did to happen, and that what he did was just mainly luck e. g. there was an extraordinary interlude of calmness during his time. This meant that he was able to many things that he should not have been able to do without risking international intervention. Britain is a good example of this international calmness. We were far more concerned with looking after ourselves, and keeping our empire strong and wealthy, than in events in Europe. The one thing that we did have a view on, and it was a strong view, was that we hated France, and this ended up being good for Bismarck anyway. Austria and France were also calm when Bismarck needed them to be – after Austria lost the war, it took her a reasonable amount of time to recover, and Bismarck used this time wisely; France had previously been hammered during Napoleon Bonaparte’s conquest of Europe, and was hated by many, and so was lying low for some time, and again, Bismarck used this greatly to his advantage. A handful people believe that Bismarck’s legacy is too big for his own good. As some people say that he caused German unification single-handedly, because this was a huge event which had enormous consequences and effects, people automatically think of Bismarck as being a greater and better person than he actually was, and that he shifted history his way more than he actually did. But, without Bismarck, luck and other things would not have been a big enough factor to cause German unification, and so he was needed, and he was a great man. Bismarck is said to have unified Germany, but there are several other people who contributed to it more than people think, who are often forgotten about, and not so well known. One of these people is Napoleon III of France. Napoleon III was a very weak, feeble, useless and pathetic ruler. When he was anxious to gain compensation and maintain France’s role as a great power, he was looking at Bismarck and Prussia for anything to grab onto and attack, but Bismarck gave him nothing to react to. This just angered Napoleon even more, and made it easy for Bismarck to use Napoleon when he wanted. Napoleon was such a weak and terrible ruler, that he automatically gave Bismarck an advantage, as Bismarck could easily control Napoleon, and trick him into doing things that he did not realize the consequences of. Bismarck very easily irritated Napoleon on purpose, but he did not go too far e. g. the Hohenzollem candidature, where Bismarck tried to put a Prussian prince in the Spanish throne. This would mean that Prussia would have a massive advantage, as France would be surrounded by Prussia, and could even face fighting on two fronts. Obviously Napoleon was furious when he heard about this, but Bismarck quickly withdrew the candidature, meaning that Napoleon did not act at all, and Bismarck looked good, as he had withdrawn it ‘to be nice to France’. Napoleon did not see what was happening, which meant that Bismarck could do almost what he wanted around him. Ludwig of Bavaria was an obstacle to Bismarck. He led the biggest German state (apart from Prussia). When Bismarck was making all of the head of the states agree to letting, acknowledging, and going to William’s coronation of becoming Kaiser of Germany, Ludwig was the only person to refuse, but Bismarck easily got around this problem by coming to an agreement with Ludwig, which was that Ludwig would accept the demands if Bismarck let him keep his ornate postboxes. This was a major victory for Bismarck, as it was the end of the very old state of Bavaria, which had lots of history, and patriotism, and was at one point a very strong power. Bismarck was controlled and told what to do mainly by William and also by the conservatives and the middle class taxpayers. William especially had absolute control over Bismarck. He had promoted him to chancellor. Prussia’s General (Moltke) was also very important. He was a superb General, and led Prussia’s army very well to its victories. Bismarck was not a military leader, and without Moltke could possibly not have done nearly as well as he did. Russia was massively important. She did not intervene during Prussia’s wars against Denmark and Austria in 1864 and 1866. If she had, Prussia would have probably lost, leading to a whole different outcome; the war with Austria led to the North German Confederation in 1867. Russia never once stopped the new central power from emerging, even though it was given plenty of opportunities. This may have been because of the Tsar. He always blamed Austria for his father’s death, and so refused to help her. Bismarck was helped on several occasions by certain countries not intervening in 1870 with the war with France, Britain did not intervene as she still hated France, neither would Italy, as she owed her acquisition of Venetia to Prussia’s victory over Austria in 1866 and also wanted to get the French out of Rome; and Austria was still recovering, and was held back by Russia, who threatened to send in 300,000 men if she got involved. This meant that Bismarck did not need to be scared of fighting on two fronts at all. Also, without the realignment of the great powers that resulted from the Crimean War, German Unification would probably not have happened. Bismarck himself even said: â€Å"It all began with the Crimean War†. Although all of these people and events were important, Bismarck was the fundamental key to the unification. Without him, it would not have happened, so we have not at all been deceived – he was a great man who was the key to the German Unification. When Bismarck came to power, Prussia was coming to its peak in almost every way. She had a brilliant General (Moltke), she was industrializing she had amazing railways and weapons and she had a thriving economy. Another help to Bismarck was the fact that Prussia was physically a large state. Some people believe that Bismarck did not need to do much, and he just did well, as it was a coincidence that he was in the right place at the right time. But, although Prussia was doing well at Bismarck’s time, it needed Bismarck to bring it all together, and make it happen! Many people say that German unification was inevitable, and would have happened even if Bismarck had never lived, because of certain preconditions. For example: nationalism had been growing for many years. This can be shown in the 1848 revolutions; also, it still kept on growing after the revolutions. Nationalism was now a talked about thing – people had written about it, and apart from the monarchs etc. who too were scared of it, people were discussing it among themselves. Also, gradually over the last few decades, there had been becoming less and less German states. Originally there were more than a hundred very small states, similar to the size of a large estate, or maybe a small county today; but as stronger states had engulfed other weaker states, fewer and larger states emerged. By the time Bismarck was around, there was not much more than twenty states. This gradual reduces in the number of states shows that eventually, there would have been a German unification without Bismarck anyway – he just sped the process up. The 1848 revolutions also showed that there was a want for change already there with the people, even before Bismarck, and so again, there would have been German unification without him. Another thing that shows that there would have been German unification without Bismarck anyway is that the Hapsburg Empire had slowly been on its downfall for many years, starting well before Bismarck’s time. At the height of its power, the Hapsburg Empire was enormous, and extremely powerful and very autocratic, but it had slowly been becoming less and less of a major power, and other countries were beginning to be able to almost rival it. Many people also say that the struggle between the German states and the struggle between Prussia and Austria had to be settled some time, and this would have happened regardless of whether Bismarck was there or not. By the time Bismarck came to power, there was as well a want for unification already there, which some say would have caused it anyway if Bismarck had not been there (liberals had wanted unification for a long time, but now there were also others who wanted it, like some of the working class, and some of the middle class – also, there were many who did not think about unification, but would have probably supported it if they could more easily). Also, in 1866, the southern states were becoming increasingly hostile to Prussia, and the other northern states. A war to resolve the hostility between France and Prussia, and to force the southern states into joining the North German Confederation seemed likely in 1869. This showed that even if Bismarck had not been there, then there would have been the unification anyway. People say that these points show that it was not Bismarck who caused the unification, but it was in fact going to happen anyway; but actually, it was Bismarck who brought all of these separate points together to make the unification happen. Without him these points would not have led to it, they need Bismarck! He brought these points together, and therefore it was Bismarck who made it possible. So we have not been deceived, as Bismarck was a great man, who shifted these points his way, leading to unification. Bismarck was a great man, and he had a great personality, and was always willing to do things. Bismarck was a great Machiavellian. He was brilliantly sly and cunning, and his truth was flexible. He was happy to put down anyone he needed to, even his friends. He always desired a stronger Prussia, and it was this desire that led to him unifying the German states. He was fundamentally a conservative, but he cleverly managed to get all different sorts of people to like him, and to be on his side – even many of the liberals. He was very gifted at making people believe something he wanted them to believe, or do what he wanted them to do e. g. he got William to agree to becoming the Kaiser, as he got all of the rulers of the other states to give him the crown. Bismarck was also very good at knowing when to stop – he would irritate someone a lot, but stop just before they exploded. He did this with Napoleon III. Bismarck also never took any risks that were too big. He always knew what he was doing, even though it often looked the opposite. He would only proceed with something if he was satisfied with his chance of success. This was his key strength – he was an unbelievable decision-maker. This meant that he was also very good at ‘playing things by ear’, which meant that he never had to plan things too far in advance, and he was very good at putting himself into other people’s shoes, and seeing what the consequences of all of his decisions could be. Bismarck was also very strong willed. He always did what he wanted, and never stopped or hesitated for anything. He was like a steam train going full speed, and having to make hundreds of decisions of what path to take – he was unstoppable. Proof of this is that when he came to power, the majority of people did not want unification, but he still managed to make it happen. William was also nearly useless without Bismarck. He was too weak and slow. Bismarck was a great man, and he certainly did shift history his way when he wanted to.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Care Of The Patient In Recovery Inadvertent Hypothermia Case Nursing Essay

Care Of The Patient In Recovery Inadvertent Hypothermia Case Nursing Essay Before the author can discuss hypothermia in regards to the patient above they must first review how the body regulates heat control within the body. Many sources, give varying definitions of what normal body temperature or normothermia is. For example Marieb (2004) defines this as a core temperature range from 35.6 °c and 37.8 °C. Meanwhile Kiekkas and Karga (2005) defined the normal temperature range of adult patients as between 36.5 °C and 37.5 °C. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) 2008 guideline for the management of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia agree with this definition. Core temperature, defined by Kiekkas and Karga (2005), is the blood temperature of the central circulatory system, which can be measured for example at the pulmonary artery, rectum or via the tympanic membrane, which occurs in recovery at Hospital x. The hypothalamus is the central organ that acts as the bodys heat promoting and heat loss centre, then brains thermoregulatory centre. Body temperature is kept stable and regulated with the help of blood. The neuronal centre in the posterior hypothalamus is triggered when there is a decrease in temperature in the blood or the external temperature is low. Mechanisms for heat conservation and heat production are triggered such as, shivering, which is the bodys natural response to cold, constriction of blood vessels in the skin and increased metabolic activity to produce energy (Hatfield and Tronson, 1996; Marieb, 2004). As with the varying definitions of normothermia, there are also differing definitions in hypothermia. NICE (2008) guideline defines hypothermia as a core temperature of less than 36 °C. Similarly several authors agree with this definition, Aikenhead et al (2007), American Society of Peri Anesthesia Nurses (ASPAN) (2009); Clarke and Clark , 1997). Meanwhile Kiekkas and Karga state, hypothermia as a core temperature of more than 1 (standard deviation) less than the mean value under resting conditions in a thermoneutral environment (Kiekkas 2005, p444) There are 4 ways in which the body loses heat; conduction, convection, evaporation and radiation. Talk about these briefly! There are patients who are more at risk of developing hypothermia these include; older and younger patients. The size of the patient: thin, due to the lack of tissue mass and obese, due to the large surface area. The type of procedure: open thoracic, abdominal, gynaecological or genitourinary. Patients having a combined general and spinal anaesthesia (Welch, 2002) Patient A falls into some of these categories, because of the type of surgery, age and anaesthesia she will be having. As part of the pre operative check in Patient A was asked the last time she had eaten, this was 12 hours before the procedure. Advice of fasting for 6 hours plus is given to patients to prevent nausea and vomiting during and after the induction of anaesthesia, as this along with the spinal causes the constriction of the abdomen and stomach. This in turn deprives the body of the metabolic system of energy it needs from food digestion (Cobbold Money 2010; McNeil, 1997). Following administration of Propofol and Remifentanil via a TIVA syringe pump, the patient was intubated with a size 7 endotracheal tube. Anaesthetic medications such as those given to Patient A; Propofol, depress the central nervous system which mean the hypodermic thermoregulatory centre function is decreased. This occurs as there is an increase in conduction and radiation to the peripheral points of the skin, where heat loss is at most, as the skin has a large surface area. This loss of heat is difficult to manage after anaesthesia has been administered as heat distribution, which is the increase in peripheral temperature and a decrease of core temperature has taken place (Kiekkas Karga, 2005; Sasad Smith, 2000). With her airway secured, Patient X was positioned for the administering of a spinal. Her back was exposed and sprayed with chlorhexidine gluconate solution, for pre operative skin disinfection (BNF, 2008), a cold solution thus further contributing to the decrease in Patient As body temperature, via evaporation (Bellamy, 2007). The effect of administering Diamorphine and Marcain Heavy ® is that it causes the sympathetic nervous system to be compromised as vasodilatation occurs (Fallacaro et al, 1986). Patient A was taken into theatre, where the ambient temperature as recorded by the author was 21 °C, reason for the temperature being so low is to minimise the growth of bacteria. However such a low temperature would affect Patient A as her body temperature will vary according to the environments conditions (Bellamy, 2007). McNeil (1998), advocates that the temperature in theatre should be raised from 21 °C to 24 °C to maintain Patient As core temperature, which unfortunately was not taken until the procedure in the operating had started. Whilst the author agrees with the later point so that the patients temperature is taken into consideration, they have to agree with Bellamys (2007) point on minimising bacteria production. Patient A was exposed for catheterisation and for the Bair Hugger ® to be positioned. This is a forced air system used in Hospital X, which several sources agree, is the best form of preventing inadvertent hypothermia (Hegarty et al, 2009; NICE Guidelines, 2008; Welch, 2002). This was however switched on at 36.5 °C after Patient A had been prepped and draped. Fluids were firstly administered to Patient A in the anaesthetic room at room temperature; they were then transferred into a warming coil at a temperature of 37 °C. Whilst the NICE (2008) guidelines recommend warm fluids are administered in the operating room at the temperature stated, the author feels that warm fluids should have been started in the anaesthetic room. The monitoring of Patient As temperature occurred after draping and prepping, it was measured using an oesophageal temperature probe as this measures the core temperature accurately and documented every 15 minutes (Al-Shaikh and Stacey, 2002; NICE, 2008). NICE (2008) recommends that temperature of a patient should be 36 °C before a procedure should proceed, the temperature of Patient A on arrival to the anaesthetic room was not taken and the first temperature in theatre was 35.6 °C increasing to 36.0 °c at the end of the procedure. After the procedure, which had no surgical complications and Patient A was extubated, she was transferred to recovery where the tympanic temperature; which is associated with the brain temperature therefore reflects the core temperature (Al-Shaikh and Stacey, 2002), was taken in recover 10 minutes after the patient arrived and was recorded to be 35.4 °C. Handover to the recovery personnel included patients name, date of birth, procedure, what drugs had been administered and the anaesthetist made an emphasis on the patients temperature which they wanted to make sure was up to at least 36.0 °c before the patient was transferred to the ward, part of the NICE (2008) guidelines. Standard recovery monitoring including Oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram and blood pressure results were constantly observed, with results being documented every 15 minutes. The effects of hypothermia are not known until the patient comes into recovery for some time as the effects are masked by the anaesthetic drugs given to Patient A. (Kiekkas et al, 2005). To prevent this a Bair Hugger was placed on Patient A to continue the warming cycle. There are many complications associated post operatively with hypothermia, the most common is post anaesthetic shivering, which is an involuntary muscular activity. This is bought on by the body returning to normal Delayed emergence, where the metabolism of drugs is decreased, as it makes it more difficult for the anaesthesia to be reversed due to the hepatic and renal functions being impaired. Add liver metabolism of drugs to this section Pressure sore development Blood clots clotting cascade, platelets do not work increased bleeding Discharge criteria Patient A woke up fully after 20 minutes in the PACU with no complaints of pain, sickness or nausea but thirst. Her temperature was taken again and this was found to be 35.8 °C, a marked improvement on her original recovery temperature. Before the patient is transferred to the ward what scale used observations etc? Urine output from catheter Sats BP

Ebola Virus Mechanism of Infection

Ebola Virus Mechanism of Infection The Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus, which  together with Marburg virus, makes up the filoviridae family. The virus causes severe  hemorrhagic fever associated with 50-90% human mortality1. Four species of the virus (Zaire,  Sudan, Cà ´te d’Ivoire, and Reston ebolavirus) have thus far been identified, with Zaire typically  associated with the highest human lethality2. A fifth EBOV species is confirmed in a 2007  outbreak in Bundibugyo, Uganda3,4. Infection with EBOV results in uncontrolled viral  replication and multiple organ failure with death occurring 6-9 days after onset of  symptoms5. Fatal cases are associated with high viremia and defective immune responses,  while survival is associated with early and vigorous humoral and cellular immune  responses6-9. Although preliminary vaccine trials in primates have been highly  successful10-13, no vaccines, specific immunotherapeutics, or post-exposure treatments are  currently approved for human use. Since 1994, EBOV outbreaks have increased more than  four-fold, thus necessitating the urgent development of vaccines and therapeutics for use in the  event of an intentional, accidental or natural EBOV release. The EBOV genome contains seven genes, which direct the synthesis of eight proteins. Transcriptional editing of the fourth gene (GP) results in expression of a 676-residue transmembrane-linked glycoprotein termed GP, as well as a 364-residue secreted glycoprotein  termed sGP14,15. EBOV GP is the main target for the design of vaccines and entry inhibitors. GP is post-translationally cleaved by furin16 to yield disulfide-linked GP1 and GP2  subunits17. GP1 effects attachment to host cells, while GP2 mediates fusion of viral and host  membranes16,18-20. EBOV is thought to enter host cells through receptor-mediated  endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits and caveolae21, followed by actin and microtubuledependent  transport to the endosome21, where GP is further processed by endosomal  cathepsins22-24. Essential cellular receptor(s) have not yet been identified, but DC-SIGN/LSIGN25,  hMGL26, ÃŽ ²-integrins27, folate receptor-ÃŽ ±28 and Tyro3 family receptors29 have all  been implicated as cellular factors in entry. Here, we report the crystal structure of EBOV GP,  at 3.4 Ã… resolution, in its trimeric, pre-fusion conformation in complex with neutralizing  antibody Fab KZ52. GP1 is responsible for cell surface attachment, which is probably mediated by a region  including residues 54-20132. GP1 is composed of a single d omain (∠¼65 Ã… Ãâ€" 30 Ã… Ãâ€" 30 Ã…),arranged in the topology shown in Fig. 2a, and can be further subdivided into the (I) base, (II)  head and (III) glycan cap regions (Fig. 2a and Supplemental Fig. S3). The base (I) subdomain  is composed of two sets of ÃŽ ² sheets, forming a semi-circular surface which clamps the internal  fusion loop and a helix of GP2 through hydrophobic interactions (Fig. 2b). Moreover, this  subdomain contains Cys53, which is proposed to form an intermolecular disulfide bridge to  Cys609 of the GP2 subunit17. Cys53 resides near GP2 in the ÃŽ ²2-ÃŽ ²3 loop at the viral membraneproximal  end of the base subdomain (Fig. 2a-b). Our EBOV GP contains an intact GP1-GP2  disulfide bridge, based on reducing and non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis. However, the region containing the counterpart GP2 cysteine is disordered, which may reflect functionally  important mobility in the region. The head (II) is located between the base and glycan cap   regions towards the host membrane surface. Two intramolecular disulfide bonds stabilize the  head subdomain and confirm the biochemically determined disulfide bridge assignments17.   Cys108-Cys135 connects a surface-exposed loop (ÃŽ ²8-ÃŽ ²9 loop) to strand ÃŽ ²7, while Cys121-Cys147 bridges the ÃŽ ²8-ÃŽ ²9 and ÃŽ ²9-ÃŽ ²10 loops (Fig. 2a). The glycan cap (III) contains four  predicted N-linked glycans (at N228, N238, N257 and N268) in an ÃŽ ±/ÃŽ ² dome over the GP1  head subdomain (Fig. 1b and 2a). This subdomain does not form any monomer-monomer  contacts and is fully exposed on the upper and outer surface of the chalice. The central ÃŽ ² sheets  from the head and glycan cap together form a fairly flat surface and, in the context of the GP  trimer, form the three inner sides of the chalice bowl. Ebola virus GP2 GP2 is responsible for fusion of viral and host cell membranes and contains the internal fusion  loop and the heptad repeat regions, HR1 and HR2. Many viral glycoproteins have fusion  peptides, located at the N terminus of their fusion subunit, which are released upon cleavage  of the precursor glycoprotein. By contrast, class II and class III fusion proteins, as well as class  I glycoproteins from Ebola, Marburg, Lassa and avian sarcoma leukosis viruses, contain  internal fusion loops lacking a free N terminus. The crystal structure reveals that the EBOV  GP internal fusion loop, which encompasses residues 511-556, utilizes an antiparallel ÃŽ ²Ã‚  stranded scaffold to display a partially helical hydrophobic fusion peptide (L529, W531, I532,  P533, Y534 and F535) (Fig. 2c). The side chains of these hydrophobic residues pack into a  region on the GP1 head of a neighboring subunit in the trimer, reminiscent of the fusion peptide  packing in the pre-fusion parainfluenz a virus 5 F structure33. A disulfide bond between Cys511  at the base of ÃŽ ²19 and Cys556 in the HR1 helix covalently links the antiparallel ÃŽ ² sheet. This  disulfide bond between the internal fusion loop and HR1 is conserved among all filoviruses,  and is analogous to a pair of critical cysteines flanking the internal fusion loop in avian sarcoma  leukosis virus34,35. Interestingly, the EBOV internal fusion loop has features more similar to  those observed in class II and III viral glycoproteins (in particular to flaviviruses) than those  previously observed for class I glycoproteins (Supplemental Fig. S4). It thus appears that  regardless of viral protein class, internal fusion loops share a common architecture for their  fusion function. EBOV GP2 contains two heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2), connected by a 25-residue  linker containing a CX6CC motif and the internal fusion loop. The crystal structures of postfusion  GP2 fragments30,31 have revealed that the two heptad repeat regions form antiparallel  ÃŽ ± helices and that a CX6CC motif forms an intrasubunit disulfide bond between Cys601 and  Cys608 (Supplemental Fig. S5). In the pre-fusion EBOV GP, HR2 and the CX6CC motif are  disordered. By contrast, the HR1 region is well ordered and can be divided into four segments:  HR1A, HR1B, HR1C and HR1D (Fig. 2c), which together assemble the cradle encircling GP1. Similarly, heptad repeat regions in influenza and parainfluenza viruses also contain multiple  segments in their pre-fusion helices that substantially rearrange in their post-fusion  conformations33,36,37. The first two segments, HR1A and HR1B (residues 554-575), together form an ÃŽ ± helix with an  Ã¢Ë† ¼40 ° kink at T565, which delineates HR1A from HR1B. Interestingly, the bend between  HR1A and HR1B contains an unusual 3-4-4-3 stutter, which may act as a conformational  switch31, rather than the typical 3-4 periodicity of heptad repeats (Supplemental Fig. S6). A  similar stutter has also been noted in parainfluenza virus 5 F33. The Ebola virus HR1C (residues  576-582) forms an extended coil linking HR1B to the 14-residue ÃŽ ± helix of HR1D (residues  583-598). HR1D forms an amphipathic helix and the hydrophobic faces of each HR1D join to  form a three-helix bundle at the trimer interface. Although the breakpoint maps directly to a  Lee et al. Page 3 Nature. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 June 22. NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript  chloride ion binding site in the post-fusion conformation of GP230,31 and at least two other  viruses38,39, no chloride ion is observed here as HR1 and HR2 do not come together to form  the six-helix bundle. Instead, the pre-fusion GP2 adopts a novel conformation, intimately  curled around GP1 (Fig. 1c). Ebola virus GP-KZ52 interface KZ52 is an antibody isolated from a human survivor of a 1995 outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic  Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire)40. This antibody neutralizes Zaire ebolavirus in  vitro40 and offers protection from lethal EBOV challenge in rodent models41, but has minimal  effects on viral pathogenicity in non-human primates42. KZ52 is directed towards a vulnerable,  non-glycosylated epitope at the base of the GP chalice, where it engages three discontinuous  segments of EBOV GP: residues 42-43 at the N terminus of GP1, and 505-514 and 549-556  at the N terminus of GP2 (Fig. 3 and Supplemental Fig. S7). Although the majority of the GP  surface buried by KZ52 belongs to GP2, the presence of both GP1 and GP2 are critical for  KZ52 recognition43. It is likely that GP1 is required to maintain the proper pre-fusion  conformation of GP2 for KZ52 binding. Indeed, KZ52 is the only antibody known to bridge  both attachment (GP1) and fusion (GP2) subunits of any viral gly coprotein. Given that KZ52  requires a conformational epitope seen only in the GP2 pre-fusion conformation and that the  KZ52 epitope is distant from the putative receptor-binding site (RBS), KZ52 likely neutralizes  by preventing rearrangement of the GP2 HR1A/HR1B segments and blocking host membrane  insertion of the internal fusion loop. Alternatively, IgG KZ52 may sterically hinder access to  the RBS or to a separate binding site of another cellular factor, especially if multiple attachment  events are required for entry. The KZ52 epitope of GP is convex and does not have a high shape complementarity to the  antibody (Sc index of 0.63), although ∠¼1600 Ã…2 of each GP monomer are occluded upon KZ52  binding. The antibody contacts a total of 15 GP residues by van der Waals interactions and 8  direct hydrogen bonds (Supplemental Fig. S7). Ten out of 15 residues in the structurally defined  KZ52 epitope are unique to Zaire ebolavirus (Supplemental Fig. S6), thus explaining the Zaire  specificity of KZ52. Ebola virus GP glycosylation We generated a fully glycosylated molecular model of EBOV GP to illustrate the native GP  trimer as it exists on the viral surface (Fig. 4). The majority of N-linked glycosylation sites are  concentrated in the mucin-like domain and glycan cap of GP1. Given that the mucin-like  domain is ∠¼75 kDa in mass (protein and oligosaccharide), the volume of this domain is  predicted to be similar to each GP monomer observed here. The crystal structure suggests that  the mucin-like domain is linked to the side of each monomer and may further build up the walls  of the chalice, forming a deeper bowl (Fig. 4). Although a mixture of complex, oligomannose  and hybrid-type glycans are found on intact, mucin-containing GP144, those glycans outside  the mucin-like domain are likely to be complex in nature: the mucin-deleted GP used for  crystallization is sensitive to PNGaseF, but not to EndoH treatment (Supplemental Fig. S8).   Modeling of complex-type oligosaccharides on the EBOV GP indicates that the majority of  the GP trimer is cloaked by a thick layer of oligosaccharide, even without the mucin-like  domain (Fig. 4). The ∠¼19 additional oligosaccharides on the full-length GP (17 on the mucinlike  domain and 2 more on GP1, disordered here) further conceal the sides and top of the  chalice. The KZ52 binding site and, presumably, the flexible regions of HR2 and the  membrane-proximal external region (MPER) remain exposed and perhaps vulnerable to  binding of antibodies and inhibitors. Lee The development of neutralizing antibodies is limited in natural Ebola virus infection. Many  survivors have low or insignificant titres1,7, and those antibodies that are elicited preferentially  recognize a secreted version of the viral glycoprotein that features an alternate quaternary  structure and lacks the mucin-like domain43. The glycocalyx surrounding EBOV GP likely  forms a shield that protects it from humoral immune responses and/or confers stability insideor outside a host. The mucin-like domain and glycan cap sit together as an external domain to  the viral attachment and fusion subunits, reminiscent of the glycan shields of HIV-1  gp12045,46   and Epstein-Barr virus gp35047, perhaps pointing to a common theme for immune  evasion. Alignment of filoviral sequences indicate that regions involved in immune evasion  have a low degree of sequence conservation [i.e. GP1 glycan cap (∠¼5%) and mucin-like domain  (0%)], but the N-glycosylation sites in the glycan cap are mostly conserved among all EBOV  subtypes (Supplemental Fig. S6), indicating the functional importance of these posttranslational  modifications. Sites of receptor binding and cathepsin cleavage Although a definitive receptor for EBOV remains to be identified, previous studies32,48,49  have determined that residues 54-201, which map to the base and head subdomains of GP1,  form a putative receptor-binding site (RBS) for attachment to host cells. Additional  experimental studies have identified at least 19 GP1 residues, assigned into four groups based  on the location in the structure, that are critical for viral entry48-50 (Fig. 5). Many of these  residues are apolar or aromatic and are involved in maintaining the structural integrity of GP1  for receptor binding or fusion. However, six residues (K114, K115, K140, G143, P146 and  C147) cluster within a ∠¼20 Ãâ€" 15 Ã… surface in the inner bowl of the chalice and may thus  represent important receptor contact sites. All residues in the putative RBS are highly conserved  among Ebola virus species (Supplemental Fig. S6). Importantly, this putative RBS is recessed beneath the glycan cap and perhaps further masked  by the mucin-like domain (Fig. 4), suggesting that additional conformational change or removalof the mucin-like domain could reveal additional surfaces required for receptor or cofactor  binding. It has been demonstrated that endosomal proteolysis of EBOV GP by cathepsin L  and/or B removes the mucin-like domain to produce a stable ∠¼18 kDa GP1 intermediate which  has enhanced viral binding and infectivity22-24. The precise site of cathepsin cleavage is  unknown and the role of cathepsins in natural infection is as yet unclear. However, formation  of an ∠¼18 kDa GP1 fragment implies that cathepsin may cleave near the GP1 ÃŽ ²13-ÃŽ ²14 loop  (residues 190-213). Indeed, this loop is unresolved in the pre-fusion structure, suggesting  enhanced mobility and accessibility to enzymatic cleavage. Cleavage within this loop would  remove the entire mucin-like domain and glyc an cap region (Fig. 5). As a result, ÃŽ ²7 to ÃŽ ²9  strands and their associated loops would become exposed. These regions of GP are in proximity  to the previously identified residues critical for viral entry. The fold, location and  physicochemical properties of this site should now provide new leads in the search for the  elusive filoviral receptor(s). A summary of the Ebola virus mechanism of infection, including the events of cathepsin  cleavage and conformational changes to GP2 during fusion, is presented.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Biotechnology- food :: essays research papers fc

Bibliography 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Copyright 2000-2004 by the SCOPE Research Group (UC Berkeley, UW, AAAS), all rights reserved. 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  © 1998 - 2004 English Nature, Northminster House, Peterborough PE1 1UA England 4. 5. Copyright  © 2004 The Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques, including genetic engineering, that are used to create, improve, or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms. Using conventional techniques, such as selective breeding, scientists have been working to improve plants and animals for human benefit for hundreds of years. Modern techniques now enable scientists to move genes (and therefore desirable traits) in ways they could not before - and with greater ease and precision ( Biotech food, which is genetically modified or genetically engineered, is grown from seeds that carry specific genes to produce desired characteristics. In the early 1990s, the first biotech food on the market was a tomato that ripened on the vine and could be transported without bruising. The products of agricultural biotechnology today include plants that are protected from insects or are tolerant to herbicides. Biotech foods have now made their way onto our tables. More than a third of the corn and more than half of the soybeans in the 1999 U.S. harvest were grown from seeds produced using biotechnology. As biotechnology crops and foods have proliferated, so have questions and concerns. European consumers, perhaps because of unrelated food scares about diseased beef and contaminated soda, are arguing to label biotech food or keep it out of stores. Consumers in the United States are starting to pay more attention to these issues. Concerns range from food safety to environmental impact. Also framing the debate are ethical questions, including whether it is right to change the genetic makeup of a plant. Some objections that activists raise also apply to conventional crops grown with modern high-intensity agriculture. Increasing acreage given over to GA crops is one of the most frightening aspects. The pollen from these plants can travel miles from their host via wind and insects and fertilize other non-GA crops or related weed species growing nearby. This has already happened with canola and sugar beet. Furthermore, the genes inserted by the alteration process are more biologically vigorous and may be up to 30 times more likely to escape than the plant's own genes. We have already seen this process take place with disastrous results with other 'exotic' and invasive species such as kudzu in the south, and zebra mussels in our waterways( http://www.

Friday, July 19, 2019

My Life is a Cluttered Drawer :: essays research papers

My life is a cluttered drawer if you looked inside you would see a variety of pictures. Pictures of places far and near. Pictures of friends, family and loved ones. In the back of the drawer tools for the tinkering that everything seems to need at one time or another. Different types of music would be scattered throughout the drawer on tapes and CD’s for the good times and the bad.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Often I sit in my room and look back at all the pictures of the interesting places I have been, the unusual sights I have seen and the people I meet doing it all. A picture I often look at is a picture of Time Square New York. This particular picture I took myself. I look at this for motivation, motivation that one day I will be in the city of opportunity. The picture I keep right beside my new York picture is an army photo. A photo of one of my buddies out in the field gun by his side. This picture gives me a completely different feeling. A feeling of appreciation for the solders that are fighting for our country at this point in time. Every parent or friend with a picture like mine I’m sure, knows the feeling of wondering will they be sent, or asks the question will they come back.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As the drawer slides more than half way open now the stacks of CD’s and tapes begin to come into view. The tapes mostly of childhood music that got lost or out grown. The lessons or sharing, and good attitude all waiting to be passed down to a cousin or niece in dire need. The CD’s in the drawer I am sure have been pulled out, and again returned depending on the mood, or the company. As for the artists of these CD’s, mostly String Cheese, a semi blue grass band with a song for every mood.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  At the far back of my cluttered drawer there are several tools. The tools you would find in my drawer are common tools. The tools needed just for the basic workshop. Both kinds of screw drivers, Phillips head and a flat head. A hammer, and last but not least needle nose pliers. With this set of tools I feel I can fix, or â€Å"rig† almost anything I own to a certain extent. This set of tool would also cure the boredom of everyday life. Scratch up some nails and grab my trusty hammer with a cuple of planks of

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Leadership Essay -- Leader essays research papers

Everyone has probably played the game â€Å"Follow the Leader† back in elementary school. It is a game where the leader stands in front of the line. He or she can say or do anything, and her followers (standing in a straight line behind her) must repeat exactly the same thing he or she does or says. Whoever was picked to be the leader must have loved the experience because one had the freedom to do whatever they please, while others followed miserably or happily depending on what the leader is saying or doing. However, if one was the follower, one would wait anxiously to be the next chosen leader. At the same time, one must somehow express his or her self in a fashion that will make them stand out from the rest of the students. Whether he or she is perfectly imitating the leader or behaving really respectfully of others. Nonetheless, who determines who should be the leader? What kind of characteristics must a leader possessed? What makes a great leader (Robbins, 2005)? Is the re only one kind leadership? These questions will be answered as you continue to read on. In addition, you will come across case studies, real life experiences, and my own observation on how leaders in my work setting exhibit leadership behavior and how followers respond to it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Leadership is the capability to influence a person or a group to achieve many goals (Robbins, 2005). To elaborate, leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task, or objectives and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent by applying their leadership attributes such as values, ethics, knowledge, skills, and belief (Clark, 2000). Most importantly, not all leaders happen to be managers, and not all managers are leaders (Robbins, 2005). Even though one is positioned as a manager or a supervisor (he has the power to accomplish certain tasks within the organization) it does not necessarily mean he is a leader unless he makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives. He has the authority to tell his subordinates to do the task and they will do it just to complete it but is not interested in achieving higher goals. However, â€Å"leaders can emerge from within a group as well as being formally appointed [manager]† (Robbins, 2005).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What is great leadership? According to the trait theories, some personality traits may lead pe... ... be technically proficient; one must know his job and the duties of his employees. A leader should always look for new ways to guild your organization to new heights. And if it does not work, re-evaluate, take corrective action and move on to the next challenge. However, do not look for someone to blame. A good leader is not an authoritarian leader. A good leader sets good examples (employees should also see and hear what they are expected to do) and work as a team. A good leader always look out for the well being of their people and always keep them informed. (Clark, 1999). Leadership is like an ART! REFERENCE Ballentine, k., George, A., and Hamburg, D. (1999). Preventing deadly conflict: the critical role of leadership. Archieves of General Psychiatry; 56, 971-976. Clark, D. (2000). Big dog’s leadership page-concept of leadership. Retrieved on December 02, 2004 from In Brief; do women make better leaders? (2004). Harvard Mental Health Letter, pNA. Pree, M.D (1992). Leadership jazz. New York: A Dell Trade Paperback. Robbins, S. (2005). Essentials of organizational behavior. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Anth Final

Veronica Kim Final Exam –Anth101 Kohistani Violence Thull, is an area where the violence of Kohistani was studied by R. Lincoln Keiser. In this region, the Kohistani, initially did not believe in bloodshed in order to solve conflicts. As elements in their traditional lives changed, Kohistani violence became more and more prevalent in their culture. Three specific changes were the main reasons for the growth in violence. One change led to another change, which then led to a third change. These changes to the traditional culture of the Kohistani were the reason for increased violence among the Kohistani in Thull.The Kohistani were originally pastoralists. Their subsistence methods consisted of a balance of farming and herding. The Kohistani of Thull had permanent residences in the river valleys throughout the seasons. Traditionally, women would continue to stay in these river valleys during the winter to farm, while the men moved to higher altitudes during the summer to find lan d for the animals. Eventually, men took over much of the subsistence efforts and took part in both farming and herding.The culture of herding meant that the Kohistani had to build relationships with other herders in order to maintain peace and decrease violence within groups. Thull is a region that was difficult to travel in and out of without developed roads. Once roads were constructed and transportation was introduced, the Kohistani were able to travel to other regions to trade. This change introduced the Kohistani to the market economy, which disturbed the balance of herding and farming. As they became less dependent on herding, they were able to use the land for more farming.Thus, cultivating potatoes became the main source of income for the Kohistani. The entrance into the market economy enabled the people of Thull to increase their wealth. Through the road systems and the increased inflow of cash, Kohistani were introduced to another cultural change. Initially, the Kohistani were not a group of people who resolved conflicts with bloodshed. In this culture, with a system of hierarchy, leaders were chosen to mediate when disputes arose. However, when the Kohistani entered the market economy through the development of roads, they were able to purchase firearms.In the past, they protected themselves against enemies with other weapons such as knives and spears. As a result, when conflicts surfaced, the men of Thull were required to come into close proximity to their enemies. This was not a reasonable form of conflict resolution for the people of Thull. Therefore, violence was not the primary means of resolving disagreements. Once firearms were introduced, there was a new form of protection for the Kohistani. There was no longer a reason for the Kohistani to resolve issues through negotiations.Instead, there was an increase in violence and blood feuding because they were able to fight and easily murder their enemies from afar. The construction of roads not on ly exposed the people of Thull to firearms and the market economy, but also to different influences and religions from other regions. One specific religion that influenced the Kohistani of Thull was fundamentalist Islam. The major beliefs of fundamentalist Islam were the protection of women’s purity and one’s honor. A man’s honor was directly related to a woman’s purity. For this reason, men of a family needed to protect the women in the family.A male member of the woman’s family avenged any type of insult or action that was believed to be a threat to that woman. For example, if it were perceived that someone had threatened a woman, that person would be killed. The family of the murdered victim would want revenge upon the murderer and more killings would occur. The idea of honor was so important to the Kohistani men, that they would act in any way to protect their honor. This influence of fundamental Islam, on the Kohistani, led to greater actions of violence within and between communities.Traditional Kohistani culture developed into what it is today through modernization. Change in one element of culture inflicted a transformation in traditional ways of conflict resolution. There is evidence of this integrated change in the culture of the Kohistani. Through the development of roads, the Kohistani adjusted their subsistence methods, how they resolved conflicts and influenced their beliefs. All of these shifts in culture eventually contributed to increased violence in the Kohistani communities of Thull.