Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Gratitude the parent of all virtues

Gratitude the parent of all virtues Everyone indeed has experienced receiving gifts, favors or benefits. How does it feel? Certainly, the common emotion that one feels is the feeling of being thankful or grateful. But on the other hand, one might also feel indebted. Thus, through this study, a deeper understanding will be grasp to understand every part of the emotion gratitude: what is gratitude, how is gratitude experienced, the difference between gratitude and indebtness, its impact to the people and limitations. Gratitude is one common emotion to aid (Gallup, 1998). According to Emmons Crumpler, (2000) it is an emotion evident in all cultures and is a virtue encouraged by all of the major religions of the world. The importance of gratitude has been taught by several world religions (Emmons Crumpler, 2000). But it has been largely neglected in the field of psychological science until the 21st century despite the fact that it is believed by many thinkers in various disciplines from Western social theorists Seneca an d Cicero to Adam Smith and David Hume, to modern social scientists Robert Frank and Robert Trivers, that this emotion is essential for building and preserving social relationships (Bartlett DeSteno, 2006 McCullough, Kimeldorf, Cohen, 2008) and has been marked not only the best, but the parent of all other virtues (Cicero, 1851 p.139). Gratitude in theological aspect is defined as the affirmation of a bond between giver and receiver, which is central to the human divine relationship (Emmons Kneezel, 2005). This means that when one experience gratitude, it signifies that a relationship exists between the benefactor and the receiver. In New Webster Dictionary (2002), it is defined as a feeling of appreciation for a kindness or favor received. Psychologists on the other hand typically define gratitude as a positive emotion (Tsang, 2006). Being a positive emotion means that it encourages people to engage in cognitive and behavioral activities that will build resources that will become useful during threatening, and challenging situations (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001). It has also been acknowledged as a moderately pleasant emotion (Mayer et al., 1991) but it is different from plain happiness since gratitude generally goes with the perception that one has benefited from another persons generosity. Although it is generally a ccepted that expressing gratitude brings great happiness (Gallup, 1998). Experiencing Gratitude Gratitude as described by Emmons and Crumpler (2000) is an emotional response to a gift (p. 56), adding that it is an interpersonal emotion that is felt not toward oneself but toward other people. But gratitude does not solely occur after a gift is given, as various researches have shown, the benefactor, the recipient and the gifts affect such experience. In Heiders theory of gratitude, it states that the beneficiary would encounter less gratitude in situations where the benefactor would obliged the beneficiary to be grateful, because the beneficiary prefers to infer their gratitude to be self-motivated, rather than controlled by external sources (Watkins et al., 2006). Hence, if a return favor is expected, a feeling of gratefulness declines. Individuals also experience gratitude when they see a benefit was caused by the efforts of others (Weiner, Russell, Lerman, 1979; Zaieski, 1988), a nd also when they are able to recognize appropriately the effort of others as the cause of another persons gratitude (Weiner et al., 1979). On the other hand, providing intentionally valued benefits, as perceived by the recipients, create greater feelings of gratitude (Tsang, 2007). Similar to it, Emmons and McCullough, (2003) stressed on the personal benefit received by the individual that was not deserved or earned, but because of the good intentions of another. These benefits whether intentionally provided, costly to the benefactor, and or valuable to the recipient helped increase the amount of gratitude one may experience (Tesser, Gatewood, Driver, 1968). Benefits that are seen to be costly to the benefactor bring forth a larger sense of gratefulness, as long as the benefactor does not have a need for personal benefit on the first place (Okamoto Robinson, 1997). Likewise, people are also seen to expect feeling more grateful to friends, associates or acquaintances, and stranger s who benefit them than to genetic relatives (e.g. siblings parents) who provided the same benefit (Bar-Tal, Bar-Zohar, Creenberg, Hermon, 1977). Gratitude versus Indebtness In the beginning of this review, it is stated that obtaining benefits does not always result to gratefulness. Sometimes individuals react negatively, for instance compelled to repay. In the earlier writings of Greenberg, he treated gratitude and indebtness as synonymous (Greenberg, 1980). As such, people often use interchangeably the phrases Im grateful to you (gratitude-related) and I owe you one (obligation- related). However, these two constructs are different and have distinct psychological effects (McCullough, Kimeldorf, Cohen, 2008). Greenberg (1980) defined indebtness as a state of obligation to repay another and is an emotional state of arousal and discomfort (p.4). A study of Watkins, Sheer, Ovnicek, and Kolts (2006) discovered that when benefactors assist them with an obvious expectation of a return favor, individuals felt indebted and obligated, but not grateful. This implies that the greater the recipients gratitude for a benefit, the greater it is for the individual to aid, praise, and be near to their benefactor. On the contrary, the greater the recipients indebtness, the greater it will generate distress and desire to shun away from the benefactor, thus, an important distinction between the two is that indebtness is an emotion of exchange, whereas gratitude is not (Watkins et al., 2006). Furthermore, indebtness is accompanied by negative emotions, whereas gratitude is a positively valenced emotion (Lazarus Lazarus, 1994; Mayer et al., 1991). This is supported by another research study of Watkins et al., (2006) where participants were asked how they would respond to the favors received after reading a scenario on gratitude. They found out that gratitude was strongly associated with gladness while indebtness was significantly correlated with guilt. Another, indebtness has been found to be coupled with self-reported avoidance motivations, where gratitude is associated with prosocial motivations (Gray et al., 2001). This premise will be further elaborated under the impact of gratitude to the people. Also, from Fredricksons broaden and build theory of positive emotions to gratitude, gratitude should have broad and creative thought or action tendencies similar to positive emotions, whereas indebtness should be associated with a more narrowed mentality of reciprocity (Fredrickson, 2004), a moral code stating that (1) people should help those who have helped them, and (2) people should not injure those who have helped them (Gouldner, 1960, p. 171). Taken together, it confirms that gratitude and indebtness are truly two different concepts. Impact of Gratitude Being able to distinguish the difference between gratitude and indebtness, it is good to consider the importance of gratitude to human beings. How it can affect the lives and behaviors of the individuals, both the receiver and the addressee. In field experiments, it revealed that expressions of gratitude can reinforce kidney donation (Bernstein Sim mons, 1974), and volunteering behavior toward people with HIV/AIDS (Bennett, Ross, Sunderland, 1996). By these findings, it indicates that gratitude can create, nurture, and sustain positive social relationships. In another experimental work, Watkins, Grimm, Kolts (2004) conducted a memory recall of grateful persons, and found out that gratitude was positively correlated with a positive autobiographical memory bias. Specifically, grateful individuals tend to recall more positive memories when told to do so and moreover, tend to have more positive memories come to mind even when they are attempting to remember negative events. In addition, Emmons and McCullough (2003) found that first, individuals who were tasked to remember the things they were grateful for, provide a wide variety of emotional benefits such as contentment in life and optimism. Second, these recollections of events assist one in coping with stressful events. By these findings, the tendency to recall positive happen ings would likely enhance ones judgment of their satisfaction with life (Schwartz Clore, 1983; Strack, Shwartz, Gschneidinger, 1985), and promote subjective well-being (Watkins, in press). This is also supported by a three experimental, longitudinal studies that showed that when participants are manipulated into focusing on the good side of their lives for how many weeks, there are considerable improvements on happiness, depression, and even physical health (Emmons McCullough, 2003; Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, Schkade, 2005; Seligman, Steen, Park, Peterson, 2005). Hence, the emotion gratitude improves the current psychological as well as the physical well-being of an individual. As a whole, these studies showed proof to the notion that gratitude helps one to reframe negative emotional memories by decreasing ones aversive impact on them (Watkins, Grimm, Kolts, 2004). Aside from the findings that gratitude enables one to remember positive events in ones life and enhances the individua ls psychological and physical condition, it as well facilitates the persons coping strategies. Wood, Joseph, and Linley (2007) made a study on whether gratitude was linked with distinct coping styles. They discovered that grateful people were more likely to search for emotional and instrumental social support as their means of coping. In addition, grateful people generally used more positive coping strategies that are largely characterized by approaching the problems rather than avoiding them such as self-blame, denial, and substance abuse. For these results, generally gratitude is related to positive coping strategies involving facing the problems instead of withdrawal tendencies. Furthermore, recent research has shown that individuals who habitually experience gratitude engage more frequently in prosocial behavior than do individuals who experience gratitude less often (McCullough, Emmons, Tsang, 2002). According to McCullough et al, (2001) gratitude possesses three psychological features that are significant in processing and responding to prosocial behavior. First, gratitude as a benefit detector. It alerts or signals that one has benefited from anothers benevolent actions. Tsang (2006a) discovered that participants felt more grateful toward benefactors who lend them a hand out of kindness rather than self-serving motives. Second, gratitude acts as a motivator of prosocial behavior. It motivates an individual to behave in a benevolent and prosocial way after receiving benefits. Modern research has confirmed this from Bartlett and DeSteno (2006) when they found that grateful participants tend to exert more effort in helping their benefactor on an unrelated task (e.g. answering a cognitively boring survey) compared to the nongrateful participants. Furthermore, a study done by Tsang (2006b) compared the likelihood of gratefulness to benefits given intentionally and by chance alone. It was found that not only people felt more grateful when they received the benefits that were intentionally given by their partner, but were also more likely to act openhandedly for their partner in response, than those people who received the benefits by chance. Gratitude may motivate prosocial behavior by influencing the psychological states that support generosity and cooperation. In simpler terms, gratitude leads an individual to give other people a credit for their accomplishments (McCullough, Kimeldorf, Cohen, 2008). Third, gratitude plays the role of a moral reinforcer. Expressing gratitude to a benefactor such as saying thanks functions as a social reward (Polak, Michael, McCullough, 2006) and therefore increase the probability that benefactors will act prosocially once more in the future (McCullough et al., 2001), just as showing ingratitude can instill anger and resentment in benefactors and inhibit future acts of kindness (Buno McCullough, 2006). McCullough and colleagues (2001) concluded that benefactors who were given appreciation or being thanked were willing to perform more and work harder than were the benefactors who were not thanked, when future opportunities take place. In other words, expressing gratitude acknowledges the benefactors benevolent act and thus, may encourage the benefactor to do similar deed when future events come. Limitations Research on gratitude has been recently growing (Emmons, 2004). Many of these studies make use of recall methodology or self-report measures, and gratitude scenarios. Utilizing such methods has some drawbacks. Taking first into account the recall methodology, there is a likelihood that participants would possibly have altered or reconstructed their memories and thus, elicit either a genuine or fake gratitude. Other limitation also is that of a positive memory bias. Asking participants to recollect both positive and negative events in their life does not necessarily show that the participants would exhibit a similar bias if not asked to do so (Watkins, Grimm, Kolts, 2004). In other words, do grateful people more likely to count their blessings even if not told to do so? And does the experience of gratitude plays a role in remembering positive happenings or does recalling of positive happenings elicit gratefulness? Further limitation also is utilizing gratitude scenarios. Gratitude scenarios do not essentially stimulate grateful emotions. Moreover, participants may respond basing on their personal theories in gratitude (Weinar et al., 1979) than stating their authentic grateful emotions. In simpler terms, scenario method addresses on the cognition of the individuals rather than on the affective state. Overall, these methods have potentially low psychological realism and tend to elicit low cost responses (Hegtvedt, 1990). Additionally, the genders of the participants have an effect on the studies too. In a study of Kashdan et al, (2009) on gender differences in gratitude, they assessed whether men comprehend and respond to gratitude differently than women. They found out that men view gratitude as more challenging, anxiety provoking, and burdensome; and women possess greater willingness to openly express emotions and view this as an effective regulatory act. Therefore, as much as possible future research on gratitude must have an equal number of male and female respondents. Finally, most experiments population is culturally limited. The results obtained on gratitude may perhaps not extend to the people from different cultures. Conclusion As noted by Seligman (1998)Sadly, while plumbing the depths of what is worst in life, psychology has lost its connection to the positive side of life- the knowledge about what makes human life most worth living, most fulfilling, most enjoyable, and most productive (p.4). Therefore, positive emotional states deserve attention because positive states are perceived as essential for a fulfilled life. Thus, psychological research on gratitude has evoked that gratitude holds one of the main correlations with well-being, of almost any personality characteristic (Park, Peterson, Seligman, 2004). Moreover, research exploring on the parent of all virtues has progressively revealed the power of gratitude in drawing out positive results to individuals and benefactors. Finally, taking the words from Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1967): In ordinary life, we hardly realize that we receive a great deal more than we give, and that it is only with gratitude that life becomes rich. Hence, gratitude is indisputably the parent of all virtues.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Eulogy for Son :: Eulogies Eulogy

Eulogy for Son The Death of a Child †¦ Not many people realize that the death of a child is NOT in accordance to God’s NORMAL scheme of things. It is unnatural. God did not mean for a child to go first. A child buries the parent. Not the parent buries the child. Most people do NOT experience the pain and devastation of the death of a child. And I truly hope no parent will ever feel the death of their child because they do not deserve it. The pain and devastation are indescribable †¦ and single persons – and even parents – will never feel this devastation until they experience losing a child themselves. If you love your child, the death of your child is more painful than the death of any of your loved ones, including one’s own parents. And because of this devastation, I do not wish this pain even to my enemies. I have felt the pain of the loss of a Sister; have felt the pain of the death of my Mother, and felt the death of my Father. I know how it feels. I experienced it. It is painful, looking at those old kind folks who bore you; who took care of you; went through all kinds of sacrifices and pains just to look after you for years and years, until one day the child stood on one’s own two feet, and then †¦ there they are, the parents, helpless and lifeless in front of you. Minou, Cyrus’ Mother, describes the death of her Father as a deep stab, like a bullet in the heart that pierces the body deeply. The deaths of my Sister, of my Mother and my Father were like Minou’s Father’s death, deep, painful, sad †¦ Then, the pain and sadness are gone. They remain a fond memory of the good things we did together. Our deaths as parents would be something like this. Mostly the fond memories of things we did together; and that as parents and as a family, we did what we had to do. We as parents have become older, and we lived our lives. It is now our Children’s turn to live theirs and hope, as parents, we did most of what we had to do as God had wished us. When we return to our Creator, it’s okay because we lived our lives †¦ we have fulfilled our lives.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Discuss the importance of LOYALTY in Millers Essay

Loyalty is one of the big themes in this play and most people are loyal to each other in the neighborhood, because there are quite a few illegal immigrants living there and working at the piers, so everyone trusts everyone else. This shows loyalty between this neighborhood because no one would snitch on anybody else. Because people understand that life is hard back home and they need the money to help their families, because perhaps there isn’t any work to earn the money they need, so they come to a better country hoping they have a better life there. Eddie and Beatrice are happily married, and live together in an apartment with Beatrice’s niece, Catherine. Beatrice as Eddie’s wife is very loyal and loves Eddie, he also loves Beatrice very much, but he is not as loyal to her as she is to him. I can see this on page 24, when Beatrice says to Eddie, â€Å"When am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie? † I think that Beatrice is insecure about how Eddie feels about her and their marriage. It seems that Eddie is paying more attention to Catherine then Beatrice, because he is worried that Rodolfo is taking Catherine for a ride, but he isn’t, Eddie is just getting worried over nothing, but Beatrice thinks that Eddie may think that she is just jealous, but she is just insecure about the way Eddie really feels about Catherine. Beatrice respects Eddie so much, I can see this because when Eddie is telling Beatrice that nobody will go to that wedding until Marco apologizes to him, on page 61 and Beatrice’s response to this was, â€Å"I cant Katie, I cant†¦ She says this because Eddie had already told her before that if she goes to that wedding then she as well not come back. So Beatrice obviously chose her husband and his wishes, rather than go to her nieces wedding. This proves that Beatrice is loyal and would do anything for Eddie. However, Eddie is not so faithful to Beatrice. Evidence of this is on page 47 when Eddie kisses Catherine on the mouth; I can see that she didn’t want Eddie to do that because the text says, ‘he reaches out suddenly, draws her to him, and as she strives to free herself, he kisses her on the mouth! Then suddenly Rodolfo pulls on Eddies arm and says, â€Å"Don’t! Stop that. Have respect for her. † Rodolfo obviously thinks that what Eddie is doing is wrong and he is trying to stop him. Like I mentioned before, Catherine lives in the same apartment as Eddie, and they get along really well, in fact a little to well. Catherine is a 17 year old young woman, she wants to prove to people that she isn’t a little girl anymore, but Eddie is having some trouble believing that. For example on page 5, Catherine comes in wearing her new skirt and shows it of to Eddie. He likes it but he doesn’t want other boys to see her wearing that and so he says to her, â€Å"you’re a baby, you don’t understand these things. † Eddie is saying that she can’t be going out wearing short skirts, high heels and ‘walking wavy’. He is only looking out for Catherine. Beatrice has also realized that Catherine is still acting like a little girl in front Eddie. Beatrice says to Catherine on page 30, â€Å"†¦ like you sit on the bathtub talkin’ to him when he’s shaving, in his underwear. † Beatrice is trying to explain to Catherine that she can’t still be doing that, because Beatrice knows that Catherine is trying to show everyone that she is independent, but Catherine doesn’t seem to understand because Beatrice says to her again on page 30, â€Å"but if you act like a baby, then he be treain’ you like a baby. Like when he comes home sometimes you throw yourself at him like when you was 12 years old! † This shows that Beatrice is really trying to tell Catherine that she has to stop acting like that in front of Eddie, because she isn’t 12 years old anymore, she is nearly 18 years old. This links in quite well with the meaning of this play because; Catherine wants Eddie to have enough faith in her, to let her go to do whatever she wants. Another character who is part of this is, Rodolfo. He and his brother, Marco, are illegal immigrants from Italy. They are Beatrice’s cousins and who have come over to America to work and earn some money to send back home, for their poor families. From the first time Rodolfo met Catherine he really liked her, and as Catherine got to know Rodolfo, she began to like him, a lot. Eddie soon realizes that there is something going on between Catherine and Rodolfo, because they are going out a lot together and coming home late. Eddie feels jealousy towards Rodolfo because he feels like Catherine is never at home anymore and she is always out with Rodolfo. Eddie is obviously jealous of Rodolfo, and he doesn’t really like him as much as he did, this is because Eddie thinks that all Rodolfo wants is his papers so he could stay in America and become an American citizen. This is not true at all, Rodolfo and Catherine are in love and that is why they want to get married. When Eddie found this out he really didn’t know what to do, but he did know that he wasn’t going to attend their wedding! This made Catherine really upset and she felt as thought she had lost her faith in Eddie, because he can’t be happy for her; whoever she would be with. This brings me to a different character in the play, someone who is very trustworthy and loyal. Alfieri is a lawyer and so he knows everyone in the neighborhood and their problems. Everyone always comes to Alfieri because he is a very honest and fair man, who people respect. From the first moment Eddie started to feel ‘bad’ about the whole Catherine and Rodolfo situation, he straight away turned to Alfieri, because Eddie knew he could tell Alfieri anything; even if it’s nothing to do with the law. When Eddie is talking to Alfieri on page 31, Eddie had explained the whole situation to Alfieri asked Eddie if there is a question of law somewhere and he also added, â€Å"Because there is nothing illegal about a girl falling in love with an immigrant. † But Eddie is convinced that all Rodolfo wants is his papers, Alfieri said to Eddie that he doesn’t know that but Eddie is determined for Catherine not to be with Rodolfo. As the conversation draws to an end, Alfieri says to Eddie on page 34, â€Å"†¦ let her go. That’s my advice. You did your job, now it’s her life. † Alfieri is trying to help Eddie saying that there is nothing he can do just wish her luck and let her go. Eddie thanks Alfieri; this shows trust between Eddie and Alfieri because even though Eddie doesn’t like Alfieri’s advice, he still tells him he won’t do anything, because there is nothing he can do. But later on Eddie betrays Alfieri’s trust and he calls the immigration bureau. On page 50 he says, â€Å"I want to report something. Illegal immigrants. Two of them. That’s right. † He also tells them the address and that he is just around the neighborhood. But when they start to question him further, he hangs up. There is also a lot of trust between the neighborhood and people seem to get along quite well. But when Eddie found out that there are two more illegal immigrants living upstairs with Marco and Rodolfo, who are Lipari the butchers nephews, he realizes that he just snitched on them as well as Marco and Rodolfo. Now he is scared because Lipari the butcher’s families are very hot headed and he will be in trouble when Lipari finds out Eddie snitched on them. So when the immigration officers show up on Eddie’s door Beatrice is shocked because she realizes what Eddie had done and she is ashamed with Eddie, because she never thought he would actually do that. The immigration officers start to search the apartment, they found no one, and so they run upstairs. Soon they come back down with Marco, Rodolfo and the two strange immigrants; Catherine follows down, suddenly Marco breaks from the group and dashes into the room and faces Eddie, Marco spits in Eddies face and shouts, â€Å"that one! I accuse that one! † Marco wants the whole neighborhood to know that Eddie was the man who snitched them up and Eddie was the man who snitched them up and Eddie tries to explain himself on page 58 but Lipari turns away with his arm around his wife, and they walk away, Eddie shouts â€Å"for Christ’s sake! I kept them, I gave them the blankets off my bed! † by saying this he is still trying to explain himself to everyone, but they just turn away and walk off, even his close friends, Louis and Mike. Eddie now learns how important trust is and he also realizes that the neighborhood has lost their trust and loyalty in him. In conclusion I have found out that in this play there is a lot of trust and loyalty between; Catherine and Eddie and Rodolfo, Beatrice and Eddie, and Alfieri and Eddie, but in the end there is not so much trust between Eddie and the neighborhood, more like betrayal. In that neighborhood there are quite a few immigrants working on the piers, but people keep it to themselves, because no one wants to snitch. This proves there is trust between everyone in the neighborhood. I think that Miller’s point of this play was to, actually make people realize that life isn’t just all happy endings but there are some issues which need to be talked about, like trust and loyalty in a illegal immigrant environment. I think this quote I got from the back of the book explains my point, â€Å"all the plays that I was trying to write were plays that would grab the audience by the throat and not release them, rather than presenting an emotion which you could observe and walk away. † – Arthur Miler.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Modern Art During The 20th Century - 764 Words

Modern art began as early as the nineteenth century, setting trends that would follow in the mid to late twentieth century. Expressionism was among some of the primary modern movements. This particular movement explored artists’ desires to portray their experiences and ideals of the world using experimental processes. Prussian sculptor, playwright, and illustrator by the name of Ernst Barlach sat among the famous expressionists in Germany.1 While Barlach received fame and popularity, being somewhat of a genius in his time between World War I and World War II, his popularity would slowly dwindle at the rise of the National Socialist Party headed by Adolf Hitler. 2 His work along many other artists found strong criticisms with the NAZI party and Barlach would only live to see the constant threats and removal of his work without ever witnessing the restoration of these art pieces after the second World War.3 His most provoking piece that initiated condemnation from his peers and artists under Hitler was the Magdeberg Ehrenmal.4 It became the centerpiece of many debates that would haunt not only the Magdeberg Cathedral where it was located, but Barlach as a legitimate artist himself. 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